Posted on

Meanings of Healing Gemstones

Learn the power of the stones and improve your life NOW !!!


Abalone Shell

Just as an Abalone Shell provides safe shelter for abalone, it will also lend a protective, healing energy to your spirit. Shielding you from waves of negativity, the soothing energy of abalone shells is one full of peace, beauty, compassion and love. The Native Americans believe this shell to be a sacred shell and use it, along with sage, to carry messages to Heaven. Abalone is excellent to wear when you are in need of guidance in a relationship.


If your life constantly feels out of balance, with one aspect going well while another spins out of control, use agate to establish stability with its grounding energy. Connecting with your physical power, this crystal will slowly but surely help you to build up your strengths and diminish your weaknesses with acceptance. With increased concentration and confidence, the properties of agate make it easier to focus on what is good in your life, so that you can heal from mistakes and bring the harmony it instill in your spirit to everything you do.
Learn More …


If your mind is polluted with toxic negativity, clean it up with Amazonite. This stone will restore your spirit to its most serene state of being by eliminating your worries, self-doubts and frustrations. Often, pain that we experienced in our past will create an energy block in our present. This block can manifest into a difficulty expressing yourself in relationships, or even into creative slumps at work. By flooding your heart and throat chakras with loving energy, amazonite opens you up to release that which has hurt you. Free of those energy blocks, you better express yourself in every area of life. That’s what makes this stone highly beneficial for artists.
Learn More …


Amethyst is like a spa-day in a stone, it is the exact kind of relaxing energy that we could all use after a long day. Allow amethyst’s energy of contentment to sooth away the day-to-day stresses that keep you up at night. In working with the third eye and crown chakras, Amethyst indulges your intuitions. This not only means that amethyst will help your body give into innate desires like sound sleep and relaxation, but it will also work with your third eye to balance the mind with insightful solutions to problems.
Learn More …


Your appetite for life, creative endeavors and passionate pursuits will feel nearly insatiable when overwhelmed by the exhilarating energy of Apatite. Working with the energy of this crystal helps you to not only recognize your ambitions, but chase after them with a newfound vigor. Let the inspirate this stirs within you, find new creative outlets.
Learn More …


Anxiety is like a weed—if you ignore it, it will take over. Apophyllite lets you be proactive against anxiety by pinpointing its destructive qualities with the energy of calm. Get rid of overactive thoughts, repressed emotions and negative patterns by using apophyllite to redirect your attention from the mind to the body. As apophyllite cleanses the third eye and crown chakras with a sensation of love, devote your attention to breathing in peace and exhaling any useless negativity that you still harbor.
Learn More …


Use Aquamarine to ride the positive waves toward closure, major life changes and a higher consciousness. The stress and fear that this stone washes away, leaves room peace and tranquility in their absence. Aquamarine protects the psyche from taking on dark vibrations and negative behavioral patterns. Easy is the essence of the smooth flowing energy of aquamarine.
Learn More …


If you’re heading to Las Vegas, forget about lady luck—aventurine is the one you want by your side! The whimsical energy of this shimmering crystal is especially conducive to the power of plenty. While it’s playfully referred to as a gambler’s stone, Aventurine is helpful to everyone. Sometimes a gamble looks less like a game, and more like a fork in the road of your life; a time when you have to decide between what is sound and secure, or taking a risk. In connecting with the heart chakra, Aventurine graces the spirit with an easy sense of confidence. The excitement it stimulates can promote a more optimistic outlook that will make jumping out of your comfort zone less scary.
Learn More …


Though Azurite gets its name from the word azure, meaning blue, the energy it blesses you with will have you feeling anything but blue. Azurite is often referred to as the “Stone of the Heavens,” as it aids in the pursuit of the heavenly self. It is believed to awaken psychic abilities, helping you to recognize intuition and spiritual guidance. It calms and relieves mental stress, helping you to clear your mind and dissolve any blocked energy. Native Americans valued it as a sacred stone for communication with Spirit Guides. The Mayans are also said to have used it for sacred and mystical communication.
Learn More …

Black Tourmaline

Secure under the dome of Black Tourmaline’s protection, not even the worst energy downer can burst your happy bubble. Black Tourmaline is one of the most powerful crystals for protection and elimination of negative energy. It helps to put an energetic boundary between you and others, so that you don’t pick up unwanted energies. When placed in the four corners of a room, Black Tourmaline seals the room with a protective shield. This formation assists in balancing out the energy and dispelling any energies of a lower vibration.
Learn More …


Get your blood pumping with the revitalizing energy of Bloodstone. Let bloodstone fill you with a surge of courage, self-esteem, energy and protection so that you can enjoy living in the now. With the pure, upbeat energy of this crystal, you’ll make the most out of every moment.
Learn More …

Blue Lace Agate

Fear of public speaking and fear of confrontations usually go hand in hand. If a clog in your throat chakra is holding you back, use the comforting energy of Blue Lace Agate to speak your truth. The relaxed peace of mind that blue lace agate establishes will promote insightful, authentic and articulate dialogue.
Learn More …


Hit the ground running with the grounding and reenergizing properties of Bronzite. This protective stone will postmark negative energy “Return to Sender,” and make sure that the bad vibes of others don’t make their way to you. In harmonizing all chakras, bronzite stimulates the entire chakric field so every chakra is functioning at its highest potential. If you’re going through a difficult situation where your energy is depleted and negativity is everywhere, let bronzite give you the energy to fight through and be your bronze shield against whatever negativity comes your way.
Learn More …


Carnelian is the life of the party. Creative and confident, the energy of carnelian motivates a rush of vibrancy within the sacral chakra to stimulate your inner star. Tapping into carnelian’s exciting properties will lend a sense of power that can prove especially beneficial for artists needing to break through creative blocks or those embarking on new projects + ambitions. Wear carnelian during a job interview to invoke the energies of opportunity and luck. With carnelian close, you’ll be sure to impress your prospects with your charm and vitality.
Learn More …


The name Celestite comes from the Latin word for heavenly, and its stress relieving vibes will certainly feel like nirvana to a chaotic mind. Though it’s a high-vibrational crystal, the intensity of celestite’s uplifting nature is gentle enough to still be soothing. If you are experiencing anxiety from unfamiliar situations or difficult relationships, working with Celestite can bring clarity and aid in your ability to reconcile. By instilling you with a calm approach, you will be better equipped to handle whatever life brings you.
Learn More …


If you are constantly looking toward the horizon, Chrysocolla is the energy your free spirit needs to stop dreaming about adventure and start one. Inspired by the energy of willpower, creativity, confidence and tranquility, you will feel motivated to transform your future ambitions into present realities. Use chrysocolla to commence a new beginning, and be on your way to happily ever after.
Learn More …


Can’t handle the truth? End the pattern of denial and confront truths with the energy of Chrysoprase. Through a mix of compassion, forgiveness, increased conflict resolution capability and the abandonment of petty judgements, the properties of this crystal will create a mindset ready to take on any harsh truth. The kindness and love that chrysoprase also imbue you with in your heart and sacral chakras will give you a more optimistic and insightful point of view.
Learn More …


Derived from the French word “citron” meaning lemon, this crystal’s vibe is anything but sour! Sweet is the essence of this fortune flourishing gem. The sunny attitude of citrine cultivates energy that is fertile for growth. In working with the solar plexus chakra, citrine warms the core to radiate power, centeredness, confidence and endurance throughout the body and mind. Citrine is unique because it is one of few stones that, rather than absorbing negative energy, clears it. It makes room for happiness and light so that the spirit is welcoming to a wide range of positive possibilities.
Learn More …

Clear Quartz

Clear Quartz maybe a rockstar among crystals, but it’s no diva—it shares its spotlight. For those whose spirit needs illumination, clear quartz brings clarity to shadows within the mind. The reason there is so much lore surrounding the Clear Quartz is because of how intensely it resonates with the body. A universal healer, it links to all chakras to provide balance and harmony. Its ability to be programed for manifestation is unlike any other crystal. By elevating thoughts and perspective, it will help manifest your intentions like never before.
Learn More …

Dalmation Jasper

Just like a dalmatian, Dalmatian Jasper can be your best friend when you’re feeling low, and a protective guard when your energy is under attack. Use this stone to lift your spirits with its innate happiness. Its playfulness will take your focus off of what is troubling your mind, and inspire a joy within the body that will enhance strength and creativity. If someone is attempting to push their negative vibes onto you, dalmatian jasper will signal their intentions to you, and infuse you with the positivity to overcome those frequencies.
Learn More …


Instead of getting pushed around, bulk up your spiritual strength with Dumortierite and stay true to yourself. While dumortierite lends patience, it won’t let you mistake patience for complacency. The energy of this crystal guides you with insight in how best to communicate in confrontations, or cut toxic ties. As dumortierite makes you feel light and joyful, it also helps you to let go all the things that weigh you down.
Learn More …


Embrace the energy of fluorite, and flow right into those sweet dreams. Let fluorite guide you from a state of anxiety to one of tranquility by cleansing both your mind and environment. This is an absorbent crystal that will neutralize all of the negativity around it. Sleeping near or meditating with fluorite ensures mental clarity, and harmony between chakras.
Learn More …


Also known as the healer’s stone, tapping into the magical and restorative essence of Fuchsite is like sprinkling fairy dust over your emotional wounds. While the energy of fuchsite will restore your spiritual health, it has no qualms about having to break and reset unhealthy mental constructs in order to do so. If your tendency is to blame others and pose as the victim, or to ignore your own problems as you attempt to fix those around you, fuchsite will force you to confront these negative habits. Though it may sound harsh, the love, self-worth and sense of independence that fuchsite infuses you with will ease the sting of any realizations.
Learn More …


Not all energy has to come in a Venti-sized cup; reenergize the crystal way with garnet, and you’ll have all of the vitality without the impending crash. By arousing the chi, or life force, within the physical body, garnet encourages you to go out and smell roses. Seize the day and all of your potential with help of this stone for enhancing health, passion and pleasure.
Learn More …


To ensure a golden future, embrace the protective energy of Goldstone. Goldstone is made from quartz and sand glass, and infused with copper particles to give it its shimmery appearance. The sparkles of Goldstone are symbolic of light that can always be found in the darkness. It deflects unwanted energies and is highly regarded in the spirit realm as a protective mineral.


Hematite tells it like it is. If you’re spinning out of control, or spending all your time going over things in your mind on constant replay, hematite is going to give you a reality check. It brings you out of your mind and back down to earth. Hematite’s energy focuses on the body, and it teaches us to do the same. Rather than over analyzing due to stress or anxiety, use hematite to connect to your root chakra so that you can stay grounded and just be.
Learn More …


Jade is like that outfit you wear on first dates or that necklace you wear on job interviews—it always brings good luck. Through awakening a new outlook in the third eye chakra, jade opens you up to prosperity and abundance. The wisdom that this stone can bring has been admired since ancient civilizations, and can still lend an insightful energy to your modern day problems. Through instilling a sense of peace and purity within the mind, jade guides the spirit until it has a clear vision of who you are truly meant to be.
Learn More …

K2 Stone

Instead of letting your fears dictate who you are and what you do, embody the fierce strength of this crocodile-patterned stone to overcome those anxieties once and for all. Kambaba Jasper will inspire a whole new mental outlook as you become aware of talents and capabilities that you never knew you had. This stone can transform your life if you embrace the direction it points you in, which will often be the scariest and most rewarding.
Learn More …

Kambaba Jasper

Instead of letting your fears dictate who you are and what you do, embody the fierce strength of this crocodile-patterned stone to overcome those anxieties once and for all. Kambaba Jasper will inspire a whole new mental outlook as you become aware of talents and capabilities that you never knew you had. This stone can transform your life if you embrace the direction it points you in, which will often be the scariest and most rewarding.
Learn More …


With the mystical energy of labradorite, sparks of neon will illuminate the path to your destiny. Labradorite is a stone of magic and curiosity. Wearing or holding Labradorite helps you tap into a higher state of consciousness. It’s a protective stone as well, so it will keep your energy body grounded, while allowing you to explore the expanded states of the universe. By connecting to and healing all chakras, it boosts mental and spiritual power. Labradorite opens you up, forcing you to become self-aware enough to see what you want your true intentions to be.
Learn More …

Lapis Lazuli

Realize your spiritual potential with the high vibrational energy of Lapis Lazuli. Full of the wisdom and awareness that this stone brings, your soul will be ready to embark on a journey of awakening. Strive toward enlightenment as you pursue your true destiny, and leave pettiness and stress behind. This is a powerful stone for broadening your understanding, and should be used especially by those having issues with self-expression.
Learn More …

Leopard Skin Jasper

Sometimes we get hurt, and no matter how hard we try, we can’t seem to move past it. Leopard Skin Jasper surrounds you with self-healing energy to help you to lick those wounds away, and get back to most powerful self. Through supplying ground energy to your base and root chakras, this crystal will take you out of your head and clear the insecurity and fears that reside there. Instead, get realigned with your simplest, most important goals.
Learn More …


Enter the next phase of your life with the help of Lepidolite. Through the transformational energy of this crystal, you can recognize where you want to be in life and what you need to change in order to get there. Lepidolite will guide you from chaotic stages of life, toward calm times of consistent progress and positivity. While the lithium in this stone is said to be good for those with turbulent emotions, it’s beneficial for anyone who is in need of a sense of stability. Transitions are tough, but with lepidolite to provide tranquility and balance, the journey can be a little bit easier.
Learn More …


Tough love from a tough crystal, Malachite is the friend you go to when you need that unfiltered relationship advice. If some reason or another, something always seems to go wrong in your relationships, Malachite can cleanse the chakras and bring you to a realization about what’s not working. It’s one of the most powerful transformational crystals for the heart. The emotional balance it provides will encourage you to take the action you need to remove negative patterns and enhance your transformational energy.
Learn More …


Embrace your wanderlust and let Mookaite be your spiritual compass, pointing you in the direction of adventure. Awaken your true potential with the energy of this stone, and pursue the passions you’ve put on hold. The willpower that mookaite stimulates in your solar plexus and root chakras will rouse in you a desire to explore new activities. Its exciting, yet comforting energy makes for a great travel companion for those on a solo journey.
Learn More …


The milky radiance of this crystal represents tenderness, and is believed to bring lovers closer together. Moonstone is a magical stone that connects you to your divine feminine and inner Goddess. It helps you unlock the energy of the Moon that resides within you to keep you in a more balanced state. Moonstone acts as a guide to help you do what’s necessary to become more balanced, healthy and in sync.
Learn More …


Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who is the most self-aware of them all? With black obsidian in hand, it’s probably you. Facing the good, the bad, and the ugly parts of ourselves is hard, but obsidian makes it easier. Through showing you a reflection of your true self, obsidian forces you to accept yourself entirely. It connects to the root chakra to ground you during contemplation. Working with black obsidian will assist you in cutting the stress and negative patterns from your life by first bringing them to your attention. As you see what needs to be expelled from your life, obsidian rewards you by absorbing that toxic energy. No wonder they call it the stone of truth!
Learn More …

Ocean Jasper

Bring in the tide of high vibes with Ocean Jasper. Detox from the stress of life and allow the energy of ocean jasper to assuage your overburdened mind with positivity. Embrace and enjoy your journey with other humans, and let happiness be the current you flow to. When difficulties arise, ocean jasper will help your to avoid a crash by lending you the insight to peacefully navigate around them.
Learn More …


Sometimes, whether in our work life or our relationships, it can feel like we’re walking a tight rope. Adopting the energy of Onyx let’s you breathe easier, giving you the balance, confidence and protection to take the next step. Lending you strength of mind, onyx will help you to see what is weighing you down and release it from your life. By fortifying your decision making capabilities, onyx encourages you to stop concentrating on the rope or the potential to fall, and instead look forward at the bright future ahead of you.
Learn More …

Orange Calcite

Shower yourself with the love and positivity of Orange Calcite to wash away your fears and negativity. Holding onto sadness from your past only ruins your present. Let that pain go down the drain, and lather up with the revitalizing energy of orange calcite instead. Not only will it balance your emotions and heal your wounds, orange calcite will activate your sacral chakra for enhanced creativity as well.
Learn More …


Skip being green with envy, and use the energy of Peridot to become green with abundance. Resentment doesn’t look good on anybody. Peridot helps you to ditch toxic emotions of jealousy, spite and stress, and replace them with insight, confidence and a radiant sense of purpose. The beauty of this energy will shine through you, as it washes you with powerful cleansing properties that will leave you with a lighter, more pure essence.
Learn More …

Picture Jasper

Understand the bigger picture more clearly with the help of Picture Jasper. As this crystal nurtures and balances your emotions, it grounds your base and root chakras with its earthly energy. This provides you with the calm wisdom to dispel fears, and reflect on situations with wisdom.
Learn More …


Often referred to as “Fool’s Gold” for its resemblance to real gold, Pyrite may not have the monetary value of its doppelgänger, but it is a metaphysical treasure. In addition to attracting wealth, abundance and good luck, it’s believed to hold a strong protective energy. The reflective nature of pyrite being more than just physical, it has the ability to show you which of behaviors are holding you back. This elevates your consciousness to be more aware of what you need to change in order to vibrate the intention of abundance on the same frequency as pyrite.
Learn More …

Red Jasper

Red Jasper almost seems to hug you with its comforting essence. Jasper’s energy is the support you can lean on when stress is tearing you down. As a supreme nurturer, jasper soothes the mind of anxiety so that it can focus on other things. Jasper’s encouragement helps you to take on new pursuits, deal with conflicts and approach problems with creative solutions.
Learn More …


The self-love stone, Rhodochrosite will combat feelings of inadequacy with a treat yourself mentality of self-worth. You deserve the love you receive, and Rhodochrosite energy helps you to accept that by filling you up with love and joy for yourself. This stone of empowerment will be your cheerleader, infuse your heart chakra with the courage and positivity to take on new challenges.
Learn More …


Keep calm and carry on is the message that rhodonite inspires within the heart chakra. When stirring feelings are causing waves of turmoil in your spiritual body, tame the emotional seas with rhodonite’s love, grounding and insight. Discover new passions, attract a more fulfilling kind of love and boost humanitarian efforts with the help of this crystal for calm connectedness.
Learn More …


If thoughts about your past are haunting your present, use Rhyolite to tap into your inner zen and stop thinking about “back then.” The self-esteem boosting energy of this crystal helps foster acceptance and emotional release. With a profound wisdom, you can see the past through a new lens, and take the lessons you learn to create positive changes for your future.
Learn More …

Rose Quartz

See the world through rose tinted glasses by tapping into the universal love of rose quartz. This stone will open up your heart chakra to every kind of love that you need—whether it’s self-love, familial love, friendship love, love for humanity or romantic love. As a flush of compassion, happiness, forgiveness and peace pulses through you, rose quartz will assist you in ease your grip on toxic emotions. With this sense of release, your spirit can finally be free of petty negativity.
Learn More …

Rutilated Quartz

As if filtering out negativity and psychic attacks through its complex network of needle-like rutiles, Rutilated Quartz ensures that only the purest vibes get through. If you’re prone to holding in frustrations or resentments, working with rutilated quartz may be just the energy you need to forgive and let go. While supportive, the energy of rutilated quartz will force you to bring issues to the surface so that they can be dealt with. That may sound intimidating, but rutilated quartz’s ability to help you better deal with conflicts also relieves the fear and anxiety you may have going into them.
Learn More …


The pure, high vibrational energy of Selenite is like liquid light. As it flows through your space, it brightens the energy of everyone and everything within it. Selenite has the ability to cleanse, purify and align you with your highest potential. It shifts your aura and energetic vibration to attune you with a higher energy. Low vibrational energies attract negativity on the same level. Raising your vibration is essential to keeping feelings of grief, fear, anger and anxiety out of your mental and physical space.
Learn More …


If an inability to get a handle on your hormones has you reminiscing about your teenage years in all the wrong ways, use Serpentine to bring back the balance. Swings are fun, but mood swings are anything but. Serpentine helps to clear out and release the dense areas of the chakras so that healing can occur. It helps you to take responsibility for your life and know your life is what you create it to be. Serpentine serves as a gentle reminder that you can always reach for the stars and obtain your goals. It can also be used to attract and manifest anything you want in life, whether its abundance, prosperity, love or emotional healing!
Learn More …


Shungite is like the friend in romantic comedies who the love interest doesn’t realize is amazing until 60 minutes into the movie. Touted as the Miracle Stone of the 21st Century, shungite has been around for an estimated 2 billion years, but it wasn’t until the 1996 Nobel Prize-winning research that discovered antioxidant fullerenes within the stone, that people began to wake up to shungite’s healing potential. It is now the go-to stone for EMF protection, purification and detoxification of the body, as well as providing general healing for the emotional well being. You can even place shungite in your water to create a purified elixir!
Learn More …

Smoky Quartz

Smoky Quartz isn’t the kind of energy that’s going to let you sit in a dark, stuffy room and pout. This crystal wills you to get up, draw the curtain to positive light, and open the windows to let the air of negativity out. If something no longer serves you, smoky quartz gives you the clarity to let it go. Working with Smoky Quartz helps you to overcome negative emotions such as stress, fear, anger, jealousy, and even feelings of depression. Elevate your mood with this stone that helps to keep both feet on the ground, and remain balanced in any situation.
Learn More …


The way Sodalite grounds you with energies like self-esteem, acceptance and trust will have you begging to get grounded. This harmony inducing stone reestablishes the connection between the higher mind and the body, releasing the fears and tensions held in both. Use sodalite’s encouraging energy to strengthen bonds with others and bring balance into every area of your life.
Learn More …


Just as the sun brings life to all the living things on Earth, Sunstone will breathe life into your creative spirit. Sunstone promotes energy, vitality, and creativity. The effervescent energy of sunstone reminds you of the joy that creating is meant to inspire. This stone nourishes the sacral and solar plexus chakras to breed confidence, power and leadership within your being. Free from beneath the blanket of self-doubt, your creativity will finally flourish with the power of the sun.
Learn More …

Tiger’s Eye

Tiger’s Eye gets its name from its amber hues, but its ability to bestow fierce focus and primal power only bolsters its tiger-like reputation. This crystal helps you to see through a fresh set of eyes, so that you can gain clarity on situations that have become blurry or confusing. Tiger’s eye shifts your outlook so that you can gain a deeper understanding of yourself. Is there a new hobby you’d like to try? A solution to a problem you haven’t considered? An aspect to yourself that you haven’t indulged? Tiger’s eye connects to the solar plexus and sacral chakras to ground you in the power you need to pursue those ventures.
Learn More …

Tourmalinated Quartz

The pillars of tourmaline embedded within Tourmalinated Quartz remind us that we all have pillars of strength within us that we can lean on when we feel weak. With the clarity and energy amplification of quartz, and the protection of tourmaline, you’ll feel a resurge of energy that will encourage you to conquer your self-sabotaging behaviours and thoughts. This stone is all about recognizing the power you have within yourself to solve or deal with any problem in your life. Tap into tourmalinated quartz when you need to harmonize your mind and spirit, and attract the kind of luck and abundance that stem from making positive life decisions.
Learn More …

Tree Agate

Establish strong spiritual roots with Tree Agate, and wavering emotions will never be enough to tear you down. Those looking for stability and nurturing protection will find solace in the gentle, but sturdy security of tree agate. Tune into the energy of Earth’s ancient trees with this crystal for perseverance, and you’ll learn how to weather any storm. Not only rich in inner peace, the abundance that this crystal attracts will also bring new opportunities your way.
Learn More …


Said by Native American cultures to be the bridge between heaven and Earth, Turquoise, known as the “master Healer,” provides a path to your vibrationally highest self. Many Native American cultures believe that turquoise helps to connect the mind to the infinite possibilities of the Universe. As a throat Chakra stone, turquoise helps to foster honest and open communication from the heart. In working to protect and align the chakras, turquoise strengthens the entire mind and body in the process.

Posted on

Merkaba and quartz, perfect combination of peace.

Pendulums are great tools for self realization and communication with one’s Higher Self. The geometric shape of the Merkaba is a star tetrahedron. There are three of these superimposed on each other making a trinity. It is a vehicle that not only takes spirit and body from one dimension to another it can also create reality. It gives us an expanded awareness of who we are by connecting us with higher levels of consciousness. In other words it plugs us back in so we wake up and remember our true nature!

The Ancient Egyptians believed The Merkaba was a counter-rotating field of light that affects spirit and body simultaneously.

It is believed to be a vehicle that can take spirit and body, or one’s interpretation of reality, from one world or dimension into another. That it can also create reality as well as move through realities. It is seen as an inter-dimensional vehicle that can aid humanity to return to their original higher states of consciousness. Linking the mind, heart and body. The Merkaba balances and revives the activities between the two sides of our brain. Such training strengthens our sensitivities and mental abilities. At this time we use only 5 to 10% of our brain. The Merkaba assists us in our spiritual growth. The Merkaba enables us to feel unconditional love thus healing ourselves as well as others. It gives us the possibility of creating any kind of harmonious reality we desire. The Merkaba can be “programmed” to do anything, the only drawback being our own beliefs.

Rose quartz is pink quartz that is often called the “Love Stone.” It is a stone of unconditional love that opens the heart chakra to all forms of love: self-love, family love, platonic love, and romantic love.

The high energy of quartz gives rose quartz the property of enhancing love in virtually any situation. In turn, this lowers stress. All in all it is a very soothing and happy stone.

Emotionally rose quartz brings gentleness, forgiveness, compassion, kindness and tolerance.

It raises one’s self-esteem and sense of self-worth. It helps balance emotions and heal emotional wounds and traumas, even grief, bringing peace and calm. Rose quartz removes fears, resentments and anger. It can also heal and release childhood traumas, neglect, and lack of love, in part by enhancing inner awareness. It can help with reconciliation with family and others. Overwhelming or unreasonable guilt is eased by rose quartz.

In the psychic and spiritual realms, rose quartz is often used to attract love, and for love spells. It is also used to ease the process of transition in dying. Rose quartz can be helpful for dream recall and dream work.

Physically rose quartz is used in crystal healing to benefit the heart, the circulatory system, fertility, headaches, kidney disease, migraines, sexual dysfunction, sinus problems, throat problems, depression,

addictions, ear aches, slowing signs of aging, reducing wrinkles, spleen problems, fibromyalgia, and reaching one’s ideal weight / weight loss. Rose quartz is also helpful and protective during pregnancy and with childbirth. It is also sometimes said that rose quartz is helpful for supporting brain functions and increasing intellect.

Rose quartz is associated with the heart chakra.

Posted on

The science, physics and history of pendulums

A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. When a pendulum is displaced sideways from its resting, equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the restoring force combined with the pendulum’s mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is called the period. The period depends on the length of the pendulum and also to a slight degree on the amplitude, the width of the pendulum’s swing.

From the first scientific investigations of the pendulum around 1602 by Galileo Galilei, the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, and was the world’s most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s. The pendulum clock invented by Christian Huygens in 1658 became the world’s standard timekeeper, used in homes and offices for 270 years, and achieved accuracy of about one second per year before it was superseded as a time standard by quartz clocks in the 1930s. Pendulums are also used in scientific instruments such as accelerometers and seismometers. Historically they were used as gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity in geophysical surveys, and even as a standard of length. The word “pendulum” is new Latin, from the Latin pendulus, meaning ‘hanging’.

The simple gravity pendulum is an idealized mathematical model of a pendulum. This is a weight  on the end of a massless cord suspended from a pivot, without friction. When given an initial push, it will swing back and forth at a constant amplitude. Real pendulums are subject to friction and air drag, so the amplitude of their swings declines.

Period of oscillation

The period of swing of a simple gravity pendulum depends on its length, the local strength of gravity, and to a small extent on the maximum angle that the pendulum swings away from vertical, θ0, called the amplitude. It is independent of the mass of the bob.  If the amplitude is limited to small swings, the period T of a simple pendulum, the time taken for a complete cycle, is:


where L is the length of the pendulum and g is the local acceleration of gravity.

For small swings the period of swing is approximately the same for different size swings: that is, the period is independent of amplitude. This property, called isochronism, is the reason pendulums are so useful for timekeeping. Successive swings of the pendulum, even if changing in amplitude, take the same amount of time.

For larger amplitudes, the period increases gradually with amplitude so it is longer than given by equation . For example, at an amplitude of θ0   23° it is 1% larger than given by . The period increases asymptotically  as θ0 approaches 180°, because the value θ0   180° is an unstable equilibrium point for the pendulum. The true period of an ideal simple gravity pendulum can be written in several different forms  ), one example being the infinite series:


T   2\pi \sqrt \left

The difference between this true period and the period for small swings  above is called the circular error. In the case of a typical grandfather clock whose pendulum has a swing of 6° and thus an amplitude of 3°, the difference between the true period and the small angle approximation  amounts to about 15 seconds per day.

For small swings the pendulum approximates a harmonic oscillator, and its motion as a function of time, t, is approximately simple harmonic motion:

Compound pendulum

The length L used to calculate the period of the ideal simple pendulum in eq.  above is the distance from the pivot point to the center of mass of the bob. Any swinging rigid body free to rotate about a fixed horizontal axis is called a compound pendulum or physical pendulum. The appropriate equivalent length L for calculating the period of any such pendulum is the distance

from the pivot to the center of oscillation. This point is located under the center of mass at a distance from the

pivot traditionally called the radius of oscillation, which depends on the mass distribution of the pendulum. If most of the mass is concentrated in a relatively small bob compared to the pendulum length, the center of oscillation is close to the center of mass.

The radius of oscillation or equivalent length L of any physical pendulum can be shown to be


where I is the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the pivot point,

m is the mass of the pendulum, and R is the distance between the pivot point and the center of mass.

Substituting this expression in  above, the period T of a compound pendulum is given by


for sufficiently small oscillations.

A rigid uniform rod of length L pivoted about either end has moment of inertia I   mL2.

The center of mass is located at the center of the rod, so R   L/2. Substituting these values into the above equation gives T   2π. This shows that a rigid rod pendulum has the same period as a simple pendulum of 2/3 its length.

Christiaan Huygens proved in 1673 that the pivot point and the center of oscillation are interchangeable. This means if any pendulum is turned upside down and swung from a pivot located at its previous center of oscillation, it will have the same period as before and the new center of oscillation will be at the old pivot point. In 1817 Henry Kater used this idea to produce a type of reversible pendulum, now known as a Kater pendulum, for improved measurements of the acceleration due to gravity.


One of the earliest known uses of a pendulum was a 1st-century seismometer device of Han Dynasty Chinese scientist Zhang Heng. Its function was to sway and activate one of a series of levers after being disturbed by the tremor of an earthquake far away. Released by a lever, a small ball would fall out of the urn-shaped device into one of eight metal toad’s mouths below, at the eight points of the compass, signifying the direction the earthquake was located. claim that the 10th-century Egyptian astronomer Ibn Yunus used a pendulum for time measurement, but this was an error that originated in 1684 with the British historian Edward Bernard.

During the Renaissance, large pendulums were used as sources of power for manual reciprocating machines such as saws, bellows, and pumps. Leonardo da Vinci made many drawings of the motion of pendulums, though without realizing its value for timekeeping.

1602: Galileo’s research

Italian scientist Galileo Galilei was the first to study the properties of pendulums, beginning around 1602. The earliest extant report of his research is contained in a letter to Guido Ubaldo dal Monte, from Padua, dated November 29, 1602. His biographer and student, Vincenzo Viviani, claimed his interest had been sparked around 1582 by the swinging motion of a chandelier in the Pisa cathedral. Galileo discovered the crucial property that makes pendulums useful as timekeepers, called isochronism; the period of the pendulum is approximately independent of the amplitude or width of the swing. He also found that the period is independent of the mass of the bob, and proportional to the square root of the length of the pendulum. He first employed freeswinging pendulums in simple timing applications. His physician friend, Santorio Santorii, invented a device which measured a patient’s pulse by the length of a pendulum; the pulsilogium. The pendulum was the first harmonic oscillator used by man. This was a great improvement over existing mechanical clocks; their best accuracy was increased from around 15 minutes deviation a day to around 15 seconds a day. Pendulums spread over Europe as existing clocks were retrofitted with them.

The English scientist Robert Hooke studied the conical pendulum around 1666, consisting of a pendulum that is free to swing in two dimensions, with the bob rotating in a circle or ellipse. He used the motions of this device as a model to analyze the orbital motions of the planets. Hooke suggested to Isaac Newton in 1679 that the components of orbital motion consisted of inertial motion along a tangent direction plus an attractive motion in the radial direction. This played a part in Newton’s formulation of the law of universal gravitation. Robert Hooke was also responsible for suggesting as early as 1666 that the pendulum could be used to measure the force of gravity. In 1687, Isaac Newton in Principia Mathematica showed that this was because the Earth was not a true sphere but slightly oblate  from the effect of centrifugal force due to its rotation, causing gravity to increase with latitude. Portable pendulums began to be taken on voyages to distant lands, as precision gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity at different points on Earth, eventually resulting in accurate models of the shape of the Earth.

1673: Huygens’ Horologium Oscillatorium

In 1673, Christiaan Huygens published his theory of the pendulum, Horologium Oscillatorium sive de motu pendulorum. Marin Mersenne and René Descartes had discovered around 1636 that the pendulum was not quite isochronous; its period increased somewhat with its amplitude. Huygens analyzed this problem by determining what curve an object must follow to descend by gravity to the same point in the same time interval, regardless of starting point; the so-called tautochrone curve. By a complicated method that was an early use of calculus, he showed this curve was a cycloid, rather than the circular arc of a pendulum, confirming that the pendulum was not isochronous and Galileo’s observation of isochronism was accurate only for small swings. Huygens also solved the problem of how to calculate the period of an arbitrarily shaped pendulum, discovering the center of oscillation, and its interchangeability with the pivot point.

The existing clock movement, the verge escapement, made pendulums swing in very wide arcs of about 100°. Huygens showed this was a source of inaccuracy, causing the period to vary with amplitude changes caused by small unavoidable variations in the clock’s drive force. To make its period isochronous, Huygens mounted cycloidal-shaped metal ‘chops’ next to the pivots in his clocks, that constrained the suspension cord and forced the pendulum to follow a cycloid arc. This solution didn’t prove as practical as simply limiting the pendulum’s swing to small angles of a few degrees. The realization that only small swings were isochronous motivated the development of the anchor escapement around 1670, which reduced the pendulum swing in clocks to 4°–6°.

1721: Temperature compensated pendulums

During the 18th and 19th century, the pendulum clock’s role as the most accurate timekeeper motivated much practical research into improving pendulums. It was found that a major source of error was that the pendulum rod expanded and contracted with changes in ambient temperature, changing the period of swing. This was solved with the invention of temperature compensated pendulums, the mercury pendulum in 1721 and the gridiron pendulum in 1726, reducing errors in precision pendulum clocks to a few seconds per week. which used this principle, making possible very accurate measurements of gravity. For the next century the reversible pendulum was the standard method of measuring absolute gravitational acceleration.

1851: Foucault pendulum

In 1851, Jean Bernard Léon Foucault showed that the plane of oscillation of a pendulum, like a gyroscope, tends to stay constant regardless of the motion of the pivot, and that this could be used to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. He suspended a pendulum free to swing in two dimensions  from the dome of the Panthéon in Paris. The length of the cord was . Once the pendulum was set in motion, the plane of swing was observed to precess or rotate 360° clockwise in about 32 hours.

This was the first demonstration of the Earth’s rotation that didn’t depend on celestial observations, and a “pendulum mania” broke out, as Foucault pendulums were displayed in many cities and attracted large crowds.

1930: Decline in use

Around 1900 low-thermal-expansion materials began to be used for pendulum rods in the highest precision clocks and other instruments, first invar, a nickel steel alloy, and later fused quartz, which made temperature compensation trivial. Precision pendulums were housed in low pressure tanks, which kept the air pressure constant to prevent changes in the period due to changes in buoyancy of the pendulum due to changing atmospheric pressure.

The timekeeping accuracy of the pendulum was exceeded by the quartz crystal oscillator, invented in 1921, and quartz clocks, invented in 1927, replaced pendulum clocks as the world’s best timekeepers. Pendulum gravimeters were superseded by “free fall” gravimeters in the 1950s, but pendulum instruments continued to be used into the 1970s.

Use for time measurement

For 300 years, from its discovery around 1581 until development of the quartz clock in the 1930s, the pendulum was the world’s standard for accurate timekeeping. In addition to clock pendulums, freeswinging seconds pendulums were widely used as precision timers in scientific experiments in the 17th and 18th centuries. Pendulums require great mechanical stability: a length change of only 0.02%, 0.2 mm in a grandfather clock pendulum, will cause an error of a minute per week.

Clock pendulums

Pendulums in clocks  are usually made of a weight or bob  suspended by a rod of wood or metal . To reduce air resistance  the bob is traditionally a smooth disk with a lens-shaped cross section, although in antique clocks it often had carvings or decorations specific to the type of clock. In quality clocks the bob is made as heavy as the suspension can support and the movement can drive, since this improves the regulation of the clock . A common weight for seconds pendulum bobs is . Instead of hanging from a pivot, clock pendulums are usually supported by a short straight spring  of flexible metal ribbon. This avoids the friction and ‘play’ caused by a pivot, and the slight bending force of the spring merely adds to the pendulum’s restoring force. A few precision clocks have pivots of ‘knife’ blades resting on agate plates. The impulses to keep the pendulum swinging are provided by an arm hanging behind the pendulum called the crutch,, which ends in a fork,  whose prongs embrace the pendulum rod. The crutch is pushed back and forth by the clock’s escapement, .

Each time the pendulum swings through its centre position, it releases one tooth of the escape wheel . The force of the clock’s mainspring or a driving weight hanging from a pulley, transmitted through the clock’s gear train, causes the wheel to turn, and a tooth presses against one of the pallets, giving the pendulum a short push. The clock’s wheels, geared to the escape wheel, move forward a fixed amount with each pendulum swing, advancing the clock’s hands at a steady rate.

The pendulum always has a means of adjusting the period, usually by an adjustment nut  under the bob which moves it up or down on the rod. Moving the bob up decreases the pendulum’s length, causing the pendulum to swing faster and the clock to gain time. Some precision clocks have a small auxiliary adjustment weight on a threaded shaft on the bob, to allow finer adjustment. Some tower clocks and precision clocks use a tray attached near to the midpoint of the pendulum rod, to which small weights can be added or removed. This effectively shifts the centre of oscillation and allows the rate to be adjusted without stopping the clock.

The pendulum must be suspended from a rigid support. During operation, any elasticity will allow tiny imperceptible swaying motions of the support, which disturbs the clock’s period, resulting in error. Pendulum clocks should be attached firmly to a sturdy wall.

The most common pendulum length in quality clocks, which is always used in grandfather clocks, is the seconds pendulum, about long.  In mantel clocks, half-second pendulums, long, or shorter, are used. Only a few large tower clocks use longer pendulums, the 1.5 second pendulum, long, or occasionally the two-second pendulum,  which is used in Big Ben.

Temperature compensation

The largest source of error in early pendulums was slight changes in length due to thermal expansion and contraction of the pendulum rod with changes in ambient temperature. This was discovered when people noticed that pendulum clocks ran slower in summer, by as much as a minute per week . Thermal expansion of pendulum rods was first studied by Jean Picard in 1669. A pendulum with a steel rod will expand by about 11.3 parts per million  with each degree Celsius increase, causing it to lose about 0.27 seconds per day for every degree Celsius increase in temperature, or 9 seconds per day for a change. Wood rods expand less, losing only about 6 seconds per day for a change, which is why quality clocks often had wooden pendulum rods. The wood had to be varnished to prevent water vapor from getting in, because changes in humidity also affected the length.

Mercury pendulum

The first device to compensate for this error was the mercury pendulum, invented by George Graham To improve thermal accommodation several thin containers were often used, made of metal. Mercury pendulums were the standard used in precision regulator clocks into the 20th century.

Gridiron pendulum

The most widely used compensated pendulum was the gridiron pendulum, invented in 1726 by John Harrison. which achieved accuracy of 15 milliseconds per day. Suspension springs of Elinvar were used to eliminate temperature variation of the spring’s restoring force on the pendulum. Later fused quartz was used which had even lower CTE. These materials are the choice for modern high accuracy pendulums.

Atmospheric pressure

The effect of the surrounding air on a moving pendulum is complex and requires fluid mechanics to calculate precisely, but for most purposes its influence on the period can be accounted for by three effects:

By Archimedes’ principle the effective weight of the bob is reduced by the buoyancy of the air it displaces, while the mass  remains the same, reducing the pendulum’s acceleration during its swing and increasing the period. This depends on the air pressure and the density of the pendulum, but not its shape.

The pendulum carries an amount of air with it as it swings, and the mass of this air increases the inertia of the pendulum, again reducing the acceleration and increasing the period. This depends on both its density and shape.

Viscous air resistance slows the pendulum’s velocity. This has a negligible effect on the period, but dissipates energy, reducing the amplitude. This reduces the pendulum’s Q factor, requiring a stronger drive force from the clock’s mechanism to keep it moving, which causes increased disturbance to the period.

Increases in barometric pressure increase a pendulum’s period slightly due to the first two effects, by about 0.11 seconds per day per kilopascal . and by 1900 the highest precision clocks were mounted in tanks that were kept at a constant pressure to eliminate changes in atmospheric pressure. Alternatively, in some a small aneroid barometer mechanism attached to the pendulum compensated for this effect.


Pendulums are affected by changes in gravitational acceleration, which varies by as much as 0.5% at different locations on Earth, so pendulum clocks have to be recalibrated after a move. Even moving a pendulum clock to the top of a tall building can cause it to lose measurable time from the reduction in gravity.

Accuracy of pendulums as timekeepers

The timekeeping elements in all clocks, which include pendulums, balance wheels, the quartz crystals used in quartz watches, and even the vibrating atoms in atomic clocks, are in physics called harmonic oscillators. The reason harmonic oscillators are used in clocks is that they vibrate or oscillate at a specific resonant frequency or period and resist oscillating at other rates. However, the resonant frequency is not infinitely ‘sharp’.  Around the resonant frequency there is a narrow natural band of frequencies, called the resonance width or bandwidth, where the harmonic oscillator will oscillate. In a clock, the actual frequency of the pendulum may vary randomly within this resonance width in response to disturbances, but at frequencies outside this band, the clock will not function at all.

Q factor

The measure of a harmonic oscillator’s resistance to disturbances to its oscillation period is a dimensionless parameter called the Q factor equal to the resonant frequency divided by the resonance width. The higher the Q, the smaller the resonance width, and the more constant the frequency or period of the oscillator for a given disturbance. The reciprocal of the Q is roughly proportional to the limiting accuracy achievable by a harmonic oscillator as a time standard.

The Q is related to how long it takes for the oscillations of an oscillator to die out. The Q of a pendulum can be measured by counting the number of oscillations it takes for the amplitude of the pendulum’s swing to decay to 1/e   36.8% of its initial swing, and multiplying by 2π.

In a clock, the pendulum must receive pushes from the clock’s movement to keep it swinging, to replace the energy the pendulum loses to friction. These pushes, applied by a mechanism called the escapement, are the main source of disturbance to the pendulum’s motion. The Q is equal to 2π times the energy stored in the pendulum, divided by the energy lost to friction during each oscillation period, which is the same as the energy added by the escapement each period. It can be seen that the smaller the fraction of the pendulum’s energy that is lost to friction, the less energy needs to be added, the less the disturbance from the escapement, the more ‘independent’ the pendulum is of the clock’s mechanism, and the more constant its period is. The Q of a pendulum is given by:


where M is the mass of the bob, ω   2π/T is the pendulum’s radian frequency of oscillation, and Γ is the frictional damping force on the pendulum per unit velocity.

ω is fixed by the pendulum’s period, and M is limited by the load capacity and rigidity of the suspension. So the Q of clock pendulums is increased by minimizing frictional losses . Precision pendulums are suspended on low friction pivots consisting of triangular shaped ‘knife’ edges resting on agate plates. Around 99% of the energy loss in a freeswinging pendulum is due to air friction, so mounting a pendulum in a vacuum tank can increase the Q, and thus the accuracy, by a factor of 100.

The Q of pendulums ranges from several thousand in an ordinary clock to several hundred thousand for precision regulator pendulums swinging in vacuum. A quality home pendulum clock might have a Q of 10,000 and an accuracy of 10 seconds per month. The most accurate commercially produced pendulum clock was the Shortt-Synchronome free pendulum clock, invented in 1921. Its Invar master pendulum swinging in a vacuum tank had a Q of 110,000 The most accurate escapements, such as the deadbeat, approximately satisfy this condition.

Gravity measurement

The presence of the acceleration of gravity g in the periodicity equation  for a pendulum means that the local gravitational acceleration of the Earth can be calculated from the period of a pendulum.  A pendulum can therefore be used as a gravimeter to measure the local gravity, which varies by over 0.5% across the surface of the Earth. The pendulum in a clock is disturbed by the pushes it receives from the clock movement, so freeswinging pendulums were used, and were the standard instruments of gravimetry up to the 1930s.

The difference between clock pendulums and gravimeter pendulums is that to measure gravity, the pendulum’s length as well as its period has to be measured. The period of freeswinging pendulums could be found to great precision by comparing their swing with a precision clock that had been adjusted to keep correct time by the passage of stars overhead. In the early measurements, a weight on a cord was suspended in front of the clock pendulum, and its length adjusted until the two pendulums swung in exact synchronism. Then the length of the cord was measured. From the length and the period, g could be calculated from equation .

The seconds pendulum

The seconds pendulum, a pendulum with a period of two seconds so each swing takes one second, was widely used to measure gravity, because most precision clocks had seconds pendulums.  By the late 17th century, the length of the seconds pendulum became the standard measure of the strength of gravitational acceleration at a location. By 1700 its length had been measured with submillimeter accuracy at several cities in Europe. For a seconds pendulum, g is proportional to its length:


Early observations

1620: British scientist Francis Bacon was one of the first to propose using a pendulum to measure gravity, suggesting taking one up a mountain to see if gravity varies with altitude.

1644: Even before the pendulum clock, French priest Marin Mersenne first determined the length of the seconds pendulum was, by comparing the swing of a pendulum to the time it took a weight to fall a measured distance.

1669: Jean Picard determined the length of the seconds pendulum at Paris, using a copper ball suspended by an aloe fiber, obtaining .

1672: The first observation that gravity varied at different points on Earth was made in 1672 by Jean Richer, who took a pendulum clock to Cayenne, French Guiana and found that it lost minutes per day; its seconds pendulum had to be shortened by lignes  shorter than at Paris, to keep correct time. In 1687 Isaac Newton in Principia Mathematica showed this was because the Earth had a slightly oblate shape  caused by the centrifugal force of its rotation, so gravity increased with latitude. He used a copper pendulum bob in the shape of a double pointed cone suspended by a thread; the bob could be reversed to eliminate the effects of nonuniform density. He calculated the length to the center of oscillation of thread and bob combined, instead of using the center of the bob. He corrected for thermal expansion of the measuring rod and barometric pressure, giving his results for a pendulum swinging in vacuum. Bouguer swung the same pendulum at three different elevations, from sea level to the top of the high Peruvian altiplano. Gravity should fall with the inverse square of the distance from the center of the Earth. Bouguer found that it fell off slower, and correctly attributed the ‘extra’ gravity to the gravitational field of the huge Peruvian plateau. From the density of rock samples he calculated an estimate of the effect of the altiplano on the pendulum, and comparing this with the gravity of the Earth was able to make the first rough estimate of the density of the Earth.

1747: Daniel Bernoulli showed how to correct for the lengthening of the period due to a finite angle of swing θ0 by using the first order correction θ02/16, giving the period of a pendulum with an extremely small swing. He compared his measurements to an estimate of the gravity at his location assuming the mountain wasn’t there, calculated from previous nearby pendulum measurements at sea level. His measurements showed ‘excess’ gravity, which he allocated to the effect of the mountain. Modeling the mountain as a segment of a sphere in diameter and high, from rock samples he calculated its gravitational field, and estimated the density of the Earth at 4.39 times that of water. Later recalculations by others gave values of 4.77 and 4.95, illustrating the uncertainties in these geographical methods.

Kater’s pendulum

The precision of the early gravity measurements above was limited by the difficulty of measuring the length of the pendulum, L . L was the length of an idealized simple gravity pendulum, which has all its mass concentrated in a point at the end of the cord. In 1673 Huygens had shown that the period of a real pendulum  was equal to the period of a simple pendulum with a length equal to the distance between the pivot point and a point called the center of oscillation, located under the center of gravity, that depends on the mass distribution along the pendulum. But there was no accurate way of determining the center of oscillation in a real pendulum.

To get around this problem, the early researchers above approximated an ideal simple pendulum as closely as possible by using a metal sphere suspended by a light wire or cord. If the wire was light enough, the center of oscillation was close to the center of gravity of the ball, at its geometric center. This “ball and wire” type of pendulum wasn’t very accurate, because it didn’t swing as a rigid body, and the elasticity of the wire caused its length to change slightly as the pendulum swung.

However Huygens had also proved that in any pendulum, the pivot point and the center of oscillation were interchangeable. representing a precision of gravity measurement of 7×10−6 . Kater’s measurement was used as Britain’s official standard of length  from 1824 to 1855.

Reversible pendulums  employing Kater’s principle were used for absolute gravity measurements into the 1930s.

Later pendulum gravimeters

The increased accuracy made possible by Kater’s pendulum helped make gravimetry a standard part of geodesy. Since the exact location  of the ‘station’ where the gravity measurement was made was necessary, gravity measurements became part of surveying, and pendulums were taken on the great geodetic surveys of the 18th century, particularly the Great Trigonometric Survey of India.

Invariable pendulums: Kater introduced the idea of relative gravity measurements, to supplement the absolute measurements made by a Kater’s pendulum. Comparing the gravity at two different points was an easier process than measuring it absolutely by the Kater method. All that was necessary was to time the period of an ordinary  pendulum at the first point, then transport the pendulum to the other point and time its period there. Since the pendulum’s length was constant, from  the ratio of the gravitational accelerations was equal to the inverse of the ratio of the periods squared, and no precision length measurements were necessary. So once the gravity had been measured absolutely at some central station, by the Kater or other accurate method, the gravity at other points could be found by swinging pendulums at the central station and then taking them to the nearby point. Kater made up a set of “invariable” pendulums, with only one knife edge pivot, which were taken to many countries after first being swung at a central station at Kew Observatory, UK.

Airy’s coal pit experiments: Starting in 1826, using methods similar to Bouguer, British astronomer George Airy attempted to determine the density of the Earth by pendulum gravity measurements at the top and bottom of a coal mine. The gravitational force below the surface of the Earth decreases rather than increasing with depth, because by Gauss’s law the mass of the spherical shell of crust above the subsurface point does not contribute to the gravity. The 1826 experiment was aborted by the flooding of the mine, but in 1854 he conducted an improved experiment at the Harton coal mine, using seconds pendulums swinging on agate plates, timed by precision chronometers synchronized by an electrical circuit. He found the lower pendulum was slower by 2.24 seconds per day. This meant that the gravitational acceleration at the bottom of the mine, 1250 ft below the surface, was 1/14,000 less than it should have been from the inverse square law; that is the attraction of the spherical shell was 1/14,000 of the attraction of the Earth. From samples of surface rock he estimated the mass of the spherical shell of crust, and from this estimated that the density of the Earth was 6.565 times that of water. Von Sterneck attempted to repeat the experiment in 1882 but found inconsistent results.

Repsold-Bessel pendulum: It was time-consuming and error-prone to repeatedly swing the Kater’s pendulum and adjust the weights until the periods were equal. Friedrich Bessel showed in 1835 that this was unnecessary. As long as the periods were close together, the gravity could be calculated from the two periods and the center of gravity of the pendulum. So the reversible pendulum didn’t need to be adjustable, it could just be a bar with two pivots. Bessel also showed that if the pendulum was made symmetrical in form about its center, but was weighted internally at one end, the errors due to air drag would cancel out. Further, another error due to the finite diameter of the knife edges could be made to cancel out if they were interchanged between measurements. Bessel didn’t construct such a pendulum, but in 1864 Adolf Repsold, under contract by the Swiss Geodetic Commission made a pendulum along these lines.  The Repsold pendulum was about 56 cm long and had a period of about second. It was used extensively by European geodetic agencies, and with the Kater pendulum in the Survey of India. Similar pendulums of this type were designed by Charles Pierce and C. Defforges.

Von Sterneck and Mendenhall gravimeters: In 1887 Austro-Hungarian scientist Robert von Sterneck developed a small gravimeter pendulum mounted in a temperature-controlled vacuum tank to eliminate the effects of temperature and air pressure. It used a “half-second pendulum,” having a period close to one second, about 25 cm long. The pendulum was nonreversible, so the instrument was used for relative gravity measurements, but their small size made them small and portable. The period of the pendulum was picked off by reflecting the image of an electric spark created by a precision chronometer off a mirror mounted at the top of the pendulum rod. The Von Sterneck instrument, and a similar instrument developed by Thomas C. Mendenhall of the US Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1890, were used extensively for surveys into the 1920s.


Gulf gravimeter: One of the last and most accurate pendulum gravimeters was the apparatus developed in 1929 by the Gulf Research and Development Co. It used two pendulums made of fused quartz, each in length with a period of 0.89 second, swinging on pyrex knife edge pivots, 180° out of phase. They were mounted in a permanently sealed temperature and humidity controlled vacuum chamber. Stray electrostatic charges on the quartz pendulums had to be discharged by exposing them to a radioactive salt before use. The period was detected by reflecting a light beam from a mirror at the top of the pendulum, recorded by a chart recorder and compared to a precision crystal oscillator calibrated against the WWV radio time signal. This instrument was accurate to within ×10−7 . Enlightenment scientists argued for a length standard that was based on some property of nature that could be determined by measurement, creating an indestructible, universal standard. The period of pendulums could be measured very precisely by timing them with clocks that were set by the stars. A pendulum standard amounted to defining the unit of length by the gravitational force of the Earth, for all intents constant, and the second, which was defined by the rotation rate of the Earth, also constant. The idea was that anyone, anywhere on Earth, could recreate the standard by constructing a pendulum that swung with the defined period and measuring its length.

Virtually all proposals were based on the seconds pendulum, in which each swing  takes one second, which is about a meter  long, because by the late 17th century it had become a standard for measuring gravity . By the 18th century its length had been measured with sub-millimeter accuracy at a number of cities in Europe and around the world.

The initial attraction of the pendulum length standard was that it was believed  that gravity was constant over the Earth’s surface, so a given pendulum had the same period at any point on Earth. So a pendulum length standard had to be defined at a single point on Earth and could only be measured there. This took much of the appeal from the concept, and efforts to adopt pendulum standards were abandoned.

Early proposals

One of the first to suggest defining length with a pendulum was Flemish scientist Isaac Beeckman who in 1631 recommended making the seconds pendulum “the invariable measure for all people at all times in all places”. Marin Mersenne, who first measured the seconds pendulum in 1644, also suggested it. The first official proposal for a pendulum standard was made by the British Royal Society in 1660, advocated by Christiaan Huygens and Ole Rømer, basing it on Mersenne’s work, and Huygens in Horologium Oscillatorium proposed a “horary foot” defined as 1/3 of the seconds pendulum. Christopher Wren was another early supporter. The idea of a pendulum standard of length must have been familiar to people as early as 1663, because Samuel Butler satirizes it in Hudibras:


In 1671 Jean Picard proposed a pendulum defined ‘universal foot’ in his influential Mesure de la Terre. Gabriel Mouton around 1670 suggested defining the toise either by a seconds pendulum or a minute of terrestrial degree. A plan for a complete system of units based on the pendulum was advanced in 1675 by Italian polymath Tito Livio Burratini. In France in 1747, geographer Charles Marie de la Condamine proposed defining length by a seconds pendulum at the equator; since at this location a pendulum’s swing wouldn’t be distorted by the Earth’s rotation. James Steuart  and George Skene Keith were also supporters.

By the end of the 18th century, when many nations were reforming their weight and measure systems, the seconds pendulum was the leading choice for a new definition of length, advocated by prominent scientists in several major nations. In 1790, then US Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed to Congress a comprehensive decimalized US ‘metric system’ based on the seconds pendulum at 38° North latitude, the mean latitude of the United States. No action was taken on this proposal. In Britain the leading advocate of the pendulum was politician John Riggs Miller. When his efforts to promote a joint British–French–American metric system fell through in 1790, he proposed a British system based on the length of the seconds pendulum at London. This standard was adopted in 1824 .

The metre

In the discussions leading up to the French adoption of the metric system in 1791, the leading candidate for the definition of the new unit of length, the metre, was the seconds pendulum at 45° North latitude. It was advocated by a group led by French politician Talleyrand and mathematician Antoine Nicolas Caritat de Condorcet. This was one of the three final options considered by the French Academy of Sciences committee. However, on March 19, 1791 the committee instead chose to base the metre on the length of the meridian through Paris. A pendulum definition was rejected because of its variability at different locations, and because it defined length by a unit of time.  A possible additional reason is that the radical French Academy didn’t want to base their new system on the second, a traditional and nondecimal unit from the ancien regime.

Although not defined by the pendulum, the final length chosen for the metre, 10−7 of the pole-to-equator meridian arc, was very close to the length of the seconds pendulum, within 0.63%. Although no reason for this particular choice was given at the time, it was probably to facilitate the use of the seconds pendulum as a secondary standard, as was proposed in the official document. So the modern world’s standard unit of length is certainly closely linked historically with the seconds pendulum.

Britain and Denmark

Britain and Denmark appear to be the only nations that  based their units of length on the pendulum. In 1821 the Danish inch was defined as 1/38 of the length of the mean solar seconds pendulum at 45° latitude at the meridian of Skagen, at sea level, in vacuum. The British parliament passed the Imperial Weights and Measures Act in 1824, a reform of the British standard system which declared that if the prototype standard yard was destroyed, it would be recovered by defining the inch so that the length of the solar seconds pendulum at London, at sea level, in a vacuum, at 62 °F was 39.1393 inches. This also became the US standard, since at the time the US used British measures. However, when the prototype yard was lost in the 1834 Houses of Parliament fire, it proved impossible to recreate it accurately from the pendulum definition, and in 1855 Britain repealed the pendulum standard and returned to prototype standards.

Other uses


A pendulum in which the rod is not vertical but almost horizontal was used in early seismometers for measuring earth tremors. The bob of the pendulum does not move when its mounting does, and the difference in the movements is recorded on a drum chart.

Schuler tuning

As first explained by Maximilian Schuler in a 1923 paper, a pendulum whose period exactly equals the orbital period of a hypothetical satellite orbiting just above the surface of the earth  will tend to remain pointing at the center of the earth when its support is suddenly displaced. This principle, called Schuler tuning, is used in inertial guidance systems in ships and aircraft that operate on the surface of the Earth. No physical pendulum is used, but the control system that keeps the inertial platform containing the gyroscopes stable is modified so the device acts as though it is attached to such a pendulum, keeping the platform always facing down as the vehicle moves on the curved surface of the Earth.

Coupled pendulums

In 1665 Huygens made a curious observation about pendulum clocks. Two clocks had been placed on his mantlepiece, and he noted that they had acquired an opposing motion. That is, their pendulums were beating in unison but in the opposite direction; 180° out of phase. Regardless of how the two clocks were started, he found that they would eventually return to this state, thus making the first recorded observation of a coupled oscillator.

The cause of this behavior was that the two pendulums were affecting each other through slight motions of the supporting mantlepiece. This process is called entrainment or mode locking in physics and is observed in other coupled oscillators. Synchronized pendulums have been used in clocks and were widely used in gravimeters in the early 20th century. Although Huygens only observed out-of-phase synchronization, recent investigations have shown the existence of in-phase synchronization, as well as “death” states wherein one or both clocks stops.

Religious practice

Pendulum motion appears in religious ceremonies as well. The swinging incense burner called a censer, also known as a thurible, is an example of a pendulum. Pendulums are also seen at many gatherings in eastern Mexico where they mark the turning of the tides on the day which the tides are at their highest point. See also pendulums for divination and dowsing.

See also


The value of g reflected by the period of a pendulum varies from place to place. The gravitational force varies with distance from the center of the Earth, i.e. with altitude – or because the Earth’s shape is oblate, g varies with latitude.

A more important cause of this reduction in g at the equator is because the equator is spinning at one revolution per day, reducing the gravitational force there.



Further reading

  1. L. Baker and J. A. Blackburn . The Pendulum: A Case Study in Physics .
  2. Gitterman . The Chaotic Pendulum .

Michael R. Matthews, Arthur Stinner, Colin F. Gauld The Pendulum: Scientific, Historical, Philosophical and Educational Perspectives, Springer

Michael R. Matthews, Colin Gauld and Arthur Stinner  The Pendulum: Its Place in Science, Culture and Pedagogy. Science & Education, 13, 261-277.

Schlomo Silbermann, “Pendulum Fundamental; The Path Of Nowhere”

  1. P. Pook . Understanding Pendulums: A Brief Introduction .




Posted on

Reiki and the power of the soul and quartz / amethyst pointers


is a form of alternative medicine developed in 1922 by Japanese Buddhist Mikao Usui. Since originating in Japan, Reiki has been adapted into varying cultural traditions across the world. Reiki practitioners use a technique they call palm healing or hands-on healing by which a “universal energy” is allegedly transferred through the palms of the practitioner to a patient in order to encourage healing.

Reiki is considered pseudoscience. Clinical research has not shown Reiki to be effective as a medical treatment for any medical condition. The American Cancer Society, state that Reiki should not be a replacement for conventional treatment.


According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the English alternative medicine word reiki or Reiki is etymologically from Japanese reiki  “mysterious atmosphere, miraculous sign”, combining rei “soul, spirit” and ki “vital energy”—the Sino-Japanese reading of Chinese língqì  “numinous atmosphere”. The earliest recorded English usage dates to 1975.

The Japanese reiki is commonly written as レイキ in katakana syllabary or as 霊気 in shinjitai “new character form” kanji. It compounds the words rei  and ki . Ki is additionally defined as “… spirits; one’s feelings, mood, frame of mind; temperament, temper, disposition, one’s nature, character; mind to do something, intention, will; care, attention, precaution”. Some reiki translation equivalents from Japanese-English dictionaries are: “feeling of mystery”, “an atmosphere  of mystery”, and “an ethereal atmosphere ;  a spiritual  presence.” Besides the usual Sino-Japanese pronunciation reiki, these kanji 霊気 have an alternate Japanese reading, namely ryōge, meaning “demon; ghost” .

Chinese língqì 靈氣 was first recorded in the  Neiye “Inward Training” section of the Guanzi, describing early Daoist meditation techniques. “That mysterious vital energy within the mind: One moment it arrives, the next it departs. So fine, there is nothing within it; so vast, there is nothing outside it. We lose it because of the harm caused by mental agitation.” Modern Standard Chinese língqì is translated by Chinese-English dictionaries as: ” spiritual influence or atmosphere”; “1. intelligence; power of understanding; 2. supernatural power or force in fairy tales; miraculous power or force”; and “1. spiritual influence ; 2. ingeniousness; cleverness”.


According to the inscription on his memorial stone, Usui taught his system of Reiki to more than 2,000 people during his lifetime. While teaching Reiki in Fukuyama, Usui suffered a stroke and died on 9 March 1926.

Research, critical evaluation, and controversy

Basis and effectiveness

Reiki’s teachings and adherents claim that qi is physiological and can be manipulated to treat a disease or condition. The existence of qi has not been established by medical research. Most research on Reiki is poorly designed and prone to bias. There is no reliable empirical evidence that Reiki is helpful for treating any medical condition, although some physicians have said it might help promote general well-being.

Scholarly evaluation

Reiki is used as an illustrative example of pseudoscience in scholarly texts and academic journal articles. Emily Rosa became the youngest person to publish in the medical literature at 11 years old when her school science project was published by the Journal of the American Medical Association demonstrating that Reiki pracitioners could not detect the alleged “life force” under experimental conditions.

Rhonda McClenton states, “The reality is that Reiki, under the auspices of pseudo-science, has begun the process of becoming institutionalized in settings where people are already very vulnerable.” Ferraresi et al. state, “In spite of its  diffusion, the baseline mechanism of action has not been demonstrated…” Wendy Reiboldt states about Reiki, “Neither the forces involved nor the alleged therapeutic benefits have been demonstrated by scientific testing.” Several authors have pointed to the vitalistic energy which Reiki is claimed to treat. Larry Sarner states, “Ironically, the only thing that distinguishes Reiki from Therapeutic Touch is that it involves actual touch.”

A guideline published by the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation states, “Reiki therapy should probably not be considered for the treatment of PDN .” Canadian sociologist Susan J. Palmer has listed Reiki as among the pseudoscientific healing methods used by cults in France to attract members.

Hospital usage

In April 2016 Reiki treatments were being made available at St. Mark’s Hospital in Salt Lake City. Utah. “We have two reiki masters if this is something patients are interested in,” said Rachel King, the hospital’s marketing coordinator.

Issues in the literature

One systematic review of 9 randomized clinical trials conducted by Lee, Pittler, and Ernst  found several issues in the literature on Reiki. First, several of these studies are actually funded by the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Second, depending on the tools used to measure depression and anxiety, the results varied and didn’t appear to have much reliability or validity. Furthermore, the scientific community has had issues in replicating the findings of studies that support Reiki. The authors of the review also found issues in reporting methodology in some of the literature, in that often there were parts left out completely or not clearly described. Frequently in these studies, sample sizes are not calculated and adequate allocation and conceal procedures were also not followed. In their review, Lee, Pittler, and Ernst  found that studies without double-blind procedures tended to exaggerate treatment effects as well. Additionally, there was no control for differences in experience of the Reiki administers and they found that even the same healer could produce different outcomes in different studies. None of the studies in the review provided rationale for the treatment duration in such that there is a need for an optimal dosage of Reiki to be established for further research. Another questionable issue with the Reiki research included in this systematic review was that no study reported any adverse effects. It is clear that this area of research requires further studies to be conducted that follow proper scientific method, especially since the main theory on which the therapy is based has never been scientifically proven.


Safety concerns for Reiki sessions are very low and are akin to those of many complementary and alternative medicine practices. Some physicians and health care providers however believe that patients may unadvisedly substitute proven treatments for life-threatening conditions with unproven alternative modalities including Reiki, thus endangering their health.

Catholic Church concerns

In March 2009, the Committee on Doctrine of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops issued the document Guidelines for Evaluating Reiki as an Alternative Therapy, in which they declared that the practice of Reiki was superstition, being neither truly faith healing nor science-based medicine. Since this announcement, some Catholic lay people have continued to practice reiki, but it has been removed from many Catholic hospitals and other institutions.

See also

Energy medicine

Glossary of alternative medicine

Laying on of hands

List of ineffective cancer treatments


Vibrational medicine



External links





Posted on

Jewellery online buy necklaces, earrings, quartz, moonstone, mineral, amethyst, gold, silver…

Jewellery or jewelry  consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery. The basic forms of jewellery vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewellery listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia.

Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures, but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other periods in European culture.

The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French “jouel”, and beyond that, to the Latin word “jocale”, meaning plaything. In British English, Indian English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, and South African English it is spelled jewellery, while the spelling is jewelry in American English.

as an artistic display

as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning – such as love, mourning, or even luck

Most cultures at some point have had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads.

Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.

Jewellery can also symbolise group membership  or status .

Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols, stones, plants, animals, body parts, or glyphs .

Materials and methods

In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery. Bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most contemporary gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity,  and is typically found up to 18K . Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K, and 24 K  being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Platinum alloys range from 900  to 950 . The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless steel findings are sometimes used.

Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give an English Assay office  the right to destroy the piece, however it is very rare for the assay office to do so.

Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the “woven” style of beaded jewellery. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures.

Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving and “cold-joining” .


Diamonds were first mined in India. Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas; In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production. There are negative consequences of the diamond trade in certain areas. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, and other nations have been labelled as blood diamonds when they are mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency.

The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found, at 3,106.75 carats .

Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.

Other gemstones

Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are:

Amber: Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old.

Amethyst: Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark.

Emerald: Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones  and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC.

Jade: Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colours as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven.

Jasper: Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours  and swirls in the stone’s pattern.

Quartz: Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz, and smoky quartz . A number of other gemstones, such as Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions.

Ruby: Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones.

Sapphire: The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones .

Turquoise: Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour.

Some gemstones  are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals.

Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconia, which can be used in place of diamond.

Metal finishes

For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material  against the metal, leaving “brush strokes.” Hammered finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.

Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver  or may be plated with rhodium or gold. Base metal costume jewellery may also be plated with silver, gold, or rhodium for a more attractive finish.

Impact on society

Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, only certain ranks could wear rings; later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery. This was also based on rank of the citizens of that time. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role. For example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century and early 20th century. More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings, has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is completely rejected in others. Likewise, hip hop culture has popularised the slang term bling-bling, which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women.

Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise wedding rings for men, which caught on, as well as engagement rings for men, which did not, going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had medieval roots. By the mid-1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. featured a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the 1920s. Religion has also played a role in societies influence. Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo, and many religions have edicts against excessive display. In Christianity, the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold, in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. In Revelation 17, “the great whore” or false religious system, is depicted as being “decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand.”  For Muslims it is considered haraam for a man to wear gold.


The history of jewellery is long and goes back many years, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked.


The first signs of jewellery came from the people in Africa. Perforated beads suggesting shell jewellery made from sea snail shells have been found dating to 75,000 years ago at Blombos Cave. In Kenya, at Enkapune Ya Muto, beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40,000 years ago. In Russia, a stone bracelet and marble ring are attributed to a similar age.

Later, the European early modern humans had crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth, berries, and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew, or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces.

A decorated engraved pendant dating to around 11,000 BC, and thought to be the oldest Mesolithic art in Britain, was found at the site of Star Carr in North Yorkshire in 2015. In southern Russia, carved bracelets made of mammoth tusk have been found. The Venus of Hohle Fels features a perforation at the top, showing that it was intended to be worn as a pendant.

Around seven-thousand years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen.


The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000–5,000 years ago. The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. In Predynastic Egypt jewellery soon began to symbolise power and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods.

In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass, along with semi-precious gems. The colour of the jewellery had significance. Green, for example, symbolised fertility. Lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the country’s borders.

Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies.

Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly coloured stones . Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols. They employed a wide variety of sophisticated metalworking techniques, such as cloisonné, engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.

Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:


The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1600 BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. Around 1500 BC, the main techniques of working gold in Greece included casting, twisting bars, and making wire. Many of these sophisticated techniques were popular in the Mycenaean period, but unfortunately this skill was lost at the end of the Bronze Age. The forms and shapes of jewellery in ancient Greece such as the armring, brooch  and pins, have varied widely since the Bronze Age as well. Other forms of jewellery include wreaths, earrings, necklace and bracelets. A good example of the high quality that gold working techniques could achieve in Greece is the ‘Gold Olive Wreath’, which is modeled on the type of wreath given as a prize for winners in athletic competitions like the Olympic Games. Jewellery dating from 600 to 475 BC is not well represented in the archaeological record, but after the Persian wars the quantity of jewellery again became more plentiful. One particularly popular type of design at this time was a bracelet decorated with snake and animal-heads Because these bracelets used considerably more metal, many examples were made from bronze. By 300 BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts, pearl, and emeralds. Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx, a striped brown pink and cream agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed, the designs grew in complexity and different materials were soon used.

Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special occasions. It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by women to show their wealth, social status, and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection from the “Evil Eye” or endowed the owner with supernatural powers, while others had a religious symbolism. Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods.

They worked two styles of pieces: cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered. It was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds. The two halves were then joined together, and wax, followed by molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been practised since the late Bronze Age. The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to thickness and then soldered together. The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface.”’

The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia, when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive. Numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia, with only one example ever found anywhere else.


Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone, and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilised wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants that could be filled with perfume.

Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the “Evil Eye” given by other people. Although women wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring. Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every finger, while others wore none. Roman men and women wore rings with an engraved gem on it that was used with wax to seal documents, a practice that continued into medieval times when kings and noblemen used the same method. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes. The Celts specialised in continuous patterns and designs, while Merovingian designs are best known for stylised animal figures. They were not the only groups known for high quality work. Note the Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England are a particularly well-known example.


The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade led to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. An example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghan lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings. Notable among merchants of the period was Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France in the 1660s.

When Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned as Emperor of the French in 1804, he revived the style and grandeur of jewellery and fashion in France. Under Napoleon’s rule, jewellers introduced parures, suites of matching jewellery, such as a diamond tiara, diamond earrings, diamond rings, a diamond brooch, and a diamond necklace. Both of Napoleon’s wives had beautiful sets such as these and wore them regularly. Another fashion trend resurrected by Napoleon was the cameo. Soon after his cameo decorated crown was seen, cameos were highly sought. The period also saw the early stages of costume jewellery, with fish scale covered glass beads in place of pearls or conch shell cameos instead of stone cameos. New terms were coined to differentiate the arts: jewellers who worked in cheaper materials were called bijoutiers, while jewellers who worked with expensive materials were called joailliers, a practice which continues to this day.


Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology and a fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art. Changing social conditions and the onset of the Industrial Revolution also led to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes led to the development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish, however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though superior artistic and technical work. One such artist was the French goldsmith François-Désiré Froment-Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often seen wearing jet jewellery after the death of Prince Albert, and it allowed the wearer to continue wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one. Perhaps the grand finalé – and an appropriate transition to the following period – were the masterful creations of the Russian artist Peter Carl Fabergé, working for the Imperial Russian court, whose Fabergé eggs and jewellery pieces are still considered as the epitome of the goldsmith’s art.

18th Century / Romanticism/ Renaissance

Many whimsical fashions were introduced in the extravagant eighteenth century. Cameos that were used in connection with jewelry were the attractive trinkets along with many of the small objects such as brooches, ear-rings and scarf-pins. Some of the necklets were made of several pieces joined with the gold chains were in and bracelets were also made sometimes to match the necklet and the broach. At the end of the Century the jewelry with cut steel intermixed with large crystals was introduced by an Englishman, Matthew Boulton of Birmingham.

Art Nouveau

In the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potential of the growing Art Nouveau style and the closely related German Jugendstil, British  Arts and Crafts Movement, Catalan Modernisme, Austro-Hungarian Sezession, Italian “Liberty”, etc.

Art Nouveau jewellery encompassed many distinct features including a focus on the female form and an emphasis on colour, most commonly rendered through the use of enamelling techniques including basse-taille, champleve, cloisonné, and plique-à-jour. Motifs included orchids, irises, pansies, vines, swans, peacocks, snakes, dragonflies, mythological creatures, and the female silhouette.

René Lalique, working for the Paris shop of Samuel Bing, was recognised by contemporaries as a leading figure in this trend. The Darmstadt Artists’ Colony and Wiener Werkstätte provided perhaps the most significant input to the trend, while in Denmark Georg Jensen, though best known for his Silverware, also contributed significant pieces. In England, Liberty & Co. and the British arts & crafts movement of Charles Robert Ashbee contributed slightly more linear but still characteristic designs. The new style moved the focus of the jeweller’s art from the setting of stones to the artistic design of the piece itself. Lalique’s dragonfly design is one of the best examples of this. Enamels played a large role in technique, while sinuous organic lines are the most recognisable design feature.

The end of World War I once again changed public attitudes, and a more sober style developed.

Art Deco

Growing political tensions, the after-effects of the war, and a reaction against the perceived decadence of the turn of the 20th century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Art Deco. Walter Gropius and the German Bauhaus movement, with their philosophy of “no barriers between artists and craftsmen” led to some interesting and stylistically simplified forms. Modern materials were also introduced: plastics and aluminium were first used in jewellery, and of note are the chromed pendants of Russian-born Bauhaus master Naum Slutzky. Technical mastery became as valued as the material itself. In the West, this period saw the reinvention of granulation by the German Elizabeth Treskow, although development of the re-invention has continued into the 1990s. It is based on the basic shapes.


In Asia, the Indian subcontinent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere, with a history of over 5,000 years. One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization, in what is now predominately modern-day Pakistan and part of northern and western India. Early jewellery making in China started around the same period, but it became widespread with the spread of Buddhism around 2,000 years ago.


The Chinese used silver in their jewellery more than gold. Blue kingfisher feathers were tied onto early Chinese jewellery and later, blue gems and glass were incorporated into designs. However, jade was preferred over any other stone. The Chinese revered jade because of the human-like qualities they assigned to it, such as its hardness, durability, and beauty.

In China, the most uncommon piece of jewellery is the earring, which was worn neither by men nor women. Amulets were common, often with a Chinese symbol or dragon. Dragons, Chinese symbols, and phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs.

The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves. Most Chinese graves found by archaeologists contain decorative jewellery.

Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent  has a long jewellery history, which went through various changes through cultural influence and politics for more than 5,000–8,000 years. Because India had an abundant supply of precious metals and gems, it prospered financially through export and exchange with other countries. While European traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5,000 years. Other pieces that women frequently wore were thin bands of gold that would be worn on the forehead, earrings, primitive brooches, chokers, and gold rings. Although women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were often crafted to be placed in men and women’s hair. The beads were about one millimetre long.

A female skeleton  wears a carlinean bangle  on her left hand. Kada is a special kind of bracelet and is widely popular in Indian culture. They symbolizes animals like peacock, elephant, etc.

According to Hindu belief, gold and silver are considered as sacred metals. Gold is symbolic of the warm sun, while silver suggests the cool moon. Both are the quintessential metals of Indian jewellery. Pure gold does not oxidise or corrode with time, which is why Hindu tradition associates gold with immortality. Gold imagery occurs frequently in ancient Indian literature. In the Vedic Hindu belief of cosmological creation, the source of physical and spiritual human life originated in and evolved from a golden womb  or egg, a metaphor of the sun, whose light rises from the primordial waters.

Jewellery had great status with India’s royalty; it was so powerful that they established laws, limiting wearing of jewellery to royalty. Only royalty and a few others to whom they granted permission could wear gold ornaments on their feet. This would normally be considered breaking the appreciation of the sacred metals. Even though the majority of the Indian population wore jewellery, Maharajas and people related to royalty had a deeper connection with jewellery. The Maharaja’s role was so important that the Hindu philosophers identified him as central to the smooth working of the world. He was considered as a divine being, a deity in human form, whose duty was to uphold and protect dharma, the moral order of the universe.

Navaratna is a powerful jewel frequently worn by a Maharaja . It is an amulet, which comprises diamond, pearl, ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, cat’s eye, coral, and hyacinth . Each of these stones is associated with a celestial deity, represented the totality of the Hindu universe when all nine gems are together. The diamond is the most powerful gem among the nine stones. There were various cuts for the gemstone. Indian Kings bought gemstones privately from the sellers. Maharaja and other royal family members value gem as Hindu God. They exchanged gems with people to whom they were very close, especially the royal family members and other intimate allies. “Only the emperor himself, his intimate relations, and select members of his entourage were permitted to wear royal turban ornament. As the empire matured, differing styles of ornament acquired the generic name of sarpech, from sar or sir, meaning head, and pech, meaning fastener.”

India was the first country to mine diamonds, with some mines dating back to 296 BC. India traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities. Historically, diamonds have been given to retain or regain a lover’s or ruler’s lost favour, as symbols of tribute, or as an expression of fidelity in exchange for concessions and protection. Mughal emperors and Kings used the diamonds as a means of assuring their immortality by having their names and wordly titles inscribed upon them. Moreover, it has played and continues to play a pivotal role in Indian social, political, economic, and religious event, as it often has done elsewhere. In Indian history, diamonds have been used to acquire military equipment, finance wars, foment revolutions, and tempt defections. They have contributed to the abdication or the decapitation of potentates. They have been used to murder a representative of the dominating power by lacing his food with crushed diamond. Indian diamonds have been used as security to finance large loans needed to buttress politically or economically tottering regimes. Victorious military heroes have been honoured by rewards of diamonds and also have been used as ransom payment for release from imprisonment or abduction.

Today, many of the jewellery designs and traditions are used, and jewellery is commonplace in Indian ceremonies and weddings.

Among the Aztecs, only nobility wore gold jewellery, as it showed their rank, power, and wealth. Gold jewellery was most common in the Aztec Empire and was often decorated with feathers from Quetzal birds and others. In general, the more jewellery an Aztec noble wore, the higher his status or prestige. The Emperor and his High Priests, for example, would be nearly completely covered in jewellery when making public appearances. Although gold was the most common and a popular material used in Aztec jewellery, jade, turquoise, and certain feathers were considered more valuable. In addition to adornment and status, the Aztecs also used jewellery in sacrifices to appease the gods. Priests also used gem-encrusted daggers to perform animal and human sacrifices.

Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making were the Maya. At the peak of their civilization, the Maya were making jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze, and copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish headdresses and jewellery. The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to metal, so they made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone. Merchants and nobility were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya region, much the same as with the Aztecs.

Native American

Native American jewellery is the personal adornment, often in the forms of necklaces, earrings, bracelets, rings, pins, brooches, labrets, and more, made by the Indigenous peoples of the United States. Native American jewellery reflects the cultural diversity and history of its makers. Native American tribes continue to develop distinct aesthetics rooted in their personal artistic visions and cultural traditions. Artists create jewellery for adornment, ceremonies, and trade. Lois Sherr Dubin writes, “n the absence of written languages, adornment became an important element of Indian  communication, conveying many levels of information.” Later, jewellery and personal adornment “…signaled resistance to assimilation. It remains a major statement of tribal and individual identity.”

Metalsmiths, beaders, carvers, and lapidaries combine a variety of metals, hardwoods, precious and semi-precious gemstones, beadwork, quillwork, teeth, bones, hide, vegetal fibres, and other materials to create jewellery. Contemporary Native American jewellery ranges from hand-quarried and processed stones and shells to computer-fabricated steel and titanium jewellery.


Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood, and other natural materials, and thus has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins, and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces.

Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility or power. Elaborate headdresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, wear certain headdresses once they have killed an enemy. Tribesman may wear boar bones through their noses.

Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside cultures. Some areas of Borneo and Papua New Guinea are yet to be explored by Western nations. However, the island nations that were flooded with Western missionaries have had drastic changes made to their jewellery designs. Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as a sign of the wearer’s devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the mass conversion to Christianity.

Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Opals had already been mined in Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 19th century, the Australian opal market became predominant. Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the country, making it one of the most profitable stones in the Pacific.

The New Zealand Māori traditionally had a strong culture of personal adornment, most famously the hei-tiki. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone, nephrite, or bowenite.

Nowadays a wide range of such traditionally inspired items such as bone carved pendants based on traditional fishhooks hei matau and other greenstone jewellery are popular with young New Zealanders of all backgrounds – for whom they relate to a generalized sense of New Zealand identity. These trends have contributed towards a worldwide interest in traditional Māori culture and arts.

Other than jewellery created through Māori influence, modern jewellery in New Zealand is multicultural and varied.

Also, 3D printing as a production technique gains more and more importance. With a great variety of services offering this production method, jewellery design becomes accessible to a growing number of creatives. An important advantage of using 3d printing are the relatively low costs for prototypes, small batch series or unique and personalized designs. Shapes that are hard or impossible to create by hand can often be realized by 3D printing. Popular materials to print include Polyamide, steel and wax . Every printable material has its very own constraints that have to be considered while designing the piece of jewelry using 3d Modelling Software.

Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 United States periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility, and a low initial cost of entry continues to expand production of hand-made adornments. Some fine examples of artisan jewellery can be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.

The increase in numbers of students choosing to study jewellery design and production in Australia has grown in the past 20 years, and Australia now has a thriving contemporary jewellery community. Many of these jewellers have embraced modern materials and techniques, as well as incorporating traditional workmanship.

More expansive use of metal to adorn the wearer, where the piece is larger and more elaborate than what would normally be considered jewellery, has come to be referred to by designers and fashion writers as Metal Couture.


Freemasons attach jewels to their detachable collars when in Lodge to signify a Brothers Office held with the Lodge. For example, the square represents the Master of the Lodge and the dove represents the Deacon.

Body modification

Jewellery used in body modification can be simple and plain or dramatic and extreme. The use of simple silver studs, rings, and earrings predominates. Common jewellery pieces such as, earrings are a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear.

Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as five years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach long. The practice has health impacts and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity. Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes or enlarge ear piercings. In the Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and First Nations peoples of the northwest coast. Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples.

In the late twentieth century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects, thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred.

In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier; in some cases, with hooks or other objects being placed into the recipient’s skin. Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies, this practice has seeped into western culture. Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. This practice is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whilst being suspended by hooks. the largest jewellery market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India, China, and the Middle East each with 8–9%, and Italy with 5%. The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe’s and Japan’s marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries, Italy and the UK.

See also

Art jewelry

Estate jewelry


List of jewellery types

Live insect jewelry


Jewellery cleaning

Wire sculpture

Jewelry Television

Jewellery Quarter

Bronze and brass ornamental work

List of topics characterized as pseudoscience


Further reading

Borel, F. 1994. The Splendor of Ethnic Jewelry: from the Colette and Jean-Pierre Ghysels Collection. New York: H.N. Abrams .

Evans, J. 1989. A History of Jewellery 1100–1870 .

Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea 1998. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press .

Tait, H. 1986. Seven Thousand Years of Jewellery. London: British Museum Publications .

External links





Posted on

Tibetan bowls and the power of sound and vibration in chakras and health

Singing bowls  are a type of bell, specifically classified as a standing bell. Rather than hanging inverted or attached to a handle, singing bowls sit with the bottom surface resting, and the rim vibrates to produce sound characterized by a fundamental frequency  and usually two audible harmonic overtones .

Singing bowls are used worldwide for meditation, music, relaxation, and personal well-being. Singing bowls were historically made throughout Asia, especially Nepal, China and Japan. They are closely related to decorative bells made along the Silk Road from the Near East to Western Asia. Today they are made in Nepal, India, Japan, China and Korea.

Origins, history and usage

In some Buddhist practices, singing bowls are used as a signal to begin and end periods of silent meditation. Some practitioners  use the singing bowl to accompany the wooden fish during chanting, striking it when a particular phrase is chanted. In Japan and Vietnam, singing bowls are similarly used during chanting and may also mark the passage of time or signal a change in activity, for example changing from sitting to walking meditation. In Japan, singing bowls are used in traditional funeral rites and ancestor worship. Every Japanese temple holds a singing bowl. Singing bowls are found on altars and in meditation rooms worldwide.

There aren’t any traditional texts about singing bowls so far as we know. All known references to them are strictly modern. However, a few pieces of art dating from several centuries ago depict singing bowls in detail, including Tibetan paintings and statues. Some Tibetan rinpoches and monks use singing bowls in monasteries and meditation centers today. Singing bowls from at least the 15th century are found in private collections. Bronze bells from Asia have been discovered as early as the 8th–10th century BC and singing bowls are thought to go back in the Himalayas to the 10th-12th century AD.

Singing bowls are played by striking the rim of the bowl with a padded mallet. They can also be played by the friction of rubbing a wood, plastic, or leather wrapped mallet around the rim of the bowl to emphasize the harmonic overtones and a continuous ‘singing’ sound.

Both antique and new bowls are widely used as an aid to meditation. They are also used in yoga, music therapy, sound healing, religious services, performance and for personal enjoyment. A randomised controlled clinical study did not find a difference in pain relief between treatments with singing bowls and a placebo treatment, while both provided significant positive effect in comparison with untreated controls.

Antique singing bowls

Antique singing bowls produce harmonic overtones creating an effect that is unique to the instrument. The subtle yet complex multiple harmonic frequencies are a special quality caused by variations in the shape of the hand made singing bowls. They may display abstract decorations like lines, rings and circles engraved into the surface. Decoration may appear outside the rim, inside the bottom, around the top of the rim and sometimes on the outside bottom.

Modern development

Singing bowls are still manufactured today in the traditional way as well as with modern manufacturing techniques. New bowls may be plain or decorated. They sometimes feature religious iconography and spiritual motifs and symbols, such as the Tibetan mantra Om mani padme hum, images of Buddhas, and Ashtamangala .

New singing bowls are made in two processes. Hand hammering is the traditional method of creating singing bowls which is still used to make new bowls. The modern method is by sand casting and then machine lathing. Machine lathing can be done only with brass, so machine lathed singing bowls are made with modern techniques and modern brass alloy.

See also


Faraday wave

Harmonic series

Sound symbolism


Further reading

de Leon, Emile  The Mastery Book of Himalayan Singing Bowls: A Musical, Spiritual, and Healing Perspective  Temple Sounds Publishing / ISBN 9780988266100 / Library of Congress Control Number: 2012948143

Müller-Ebeling, Claudia, Christian Rätsch, Surendra Bahadur Shahi . Shamanism and Tantra in the Himalayas. Trans. by Annabel Lee. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions.

Shrestha, Suren . How to Heal with Singing Bowls: Traditional Tibetan Healing Methods . Sentient Publications. ISBN 978-1-59181-087-2.

Jansen, Eva Rudy . Singing Bowls. A Practical Handbook of Instruction and Use. New Age Books, New Delhi. ISBN 81-7822-103-9.

External links





Posted on

Orgone and orgonite for energy regulation

Orgone is a pseudoscientific and spiritual concept described as an esoteric energy or hypothetical universal life force, originally proposed in the 1930s by Wilhelm Reich. Orgone was seen as a massless, omnipresent substance, similar to luminiferous aether, but more closely associated with living energy than with inert matter. It could allegedly coalesce to create organization on all scales, from the smallest microscopic units—called “bions” in orgone theory—to macroscopic structures like organisms, clouds, or even galaxies.

Reich stated that deficits or constrictions in bodily orgone were at the root of many diseases, much as deficits or constrictions in the libido could produce neuroses in Freudian theory. Reich founded the Orgone Institute ca. 1942

to pursue research into orgone energy after he immigrated to the US in 1939, and used it to publish literature and distribute material relating to the topic for more than a decade. Reich designed special “orgone accumulators”—devices ostensibly collecting and storing orgone energy from the environment—for improvement of general health or even for weather control. but this was not enough to stop the action.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health lists orgone as a type of “putative energy”.

There is no empirical support for the concept of orgone in medicine or the physical sciences, He was expelled from the Institute of Psycho-analysis because of these disagreements over the nature of the libido and his increasingly political stance. He was forced to leave Germany very soon after Hitler came to power.

Reich took an increasingly bioenergetic view of libido, perhaps influenced by his tutor Paul Kammerer and another biologist, Otto Heinrich Warburg. In the early 20th century, when molecular biology was in its infancy, developmental biology in particular still presented mysteries that made the idea of a specific life energy respectable, as was articulated by theorists such as Hans Driesch. As a psycho-analyst Reich aligned such theories with the Freudian libido, while as a materialist he believed such a life-force must be susceptible to physical experiment.

He wrote in his best known book, The Function of the Orgasm: “Between 1919 and 1921, I became familiar with Driesch’s ‘Philosophie des Organischen’ and his ‘Ordnungslehre’… Driesch’s contention seemed incontestable to me. He argued that, in the sphere of the life function, the whole could be developed from a part, whereas a machine could not be made from a screw….. However, I couldn’t quite accept the transcendentalism of the life principle. Seventeen years later I was able to resolve the contradiction on the basis of a formula pertaining to the function of energy. Driesch’s theory was always present in my mind when I thought about vitalism. The vague feeling I had about the irrational nature of his assumption turned out to be justified in the end. He landed among the spiritualists.”

The concept of orgone was the result of this work in the psycho-physiology of libido. After his migration to the US, Reich began to speculate about biological development and evolution, and then branched out into much broader speculations about the nature of the universe.

For Reich, neurosis became a physical manifestation he called “body armor”—deeply seated tensions and inhibitions in the physical body that were not separated from any mental effects that might be observed. He developed a therapeutic approach he called vegetotherapy that was aimed at opening and releasing this body armor so that free instinctive reflexes—which he considered a token of psychic well-being—could take over.


Orgone was closely associated with sexuality: Reich, following Freud, saw nascent sexuality as the primary energetic force of life. The term itself was chosen to share a root with the word orgasm, which both Reich and Freud took to be a fundamental expression of psychological health. This focus on sexuality, while acceptable in the clinical perspective of Viennese psychoanalytic circles, scandalized the conservative American public even as it appealed to countercultural figures like William S. Burroughs and Jack Kerouac.

In at least some cases, Reich’s experimental techniques do not appear to have been very careful, or to have taken precautions to remove experimental bias. Reich was concerned with experimental verification from other scientists. Albert Einstein agreed to participate, but thought Reich’s research lacked scientific detachment and experimental rigor; and concluded that the effect was simply due to the temperature gradient inside the room. “Through these experiments I regard the matter as completely solved,” he wrote to Reich on 7 February 1941. Upon further correspondence from Reich, Einstein replied that he could not devote any further time to the matter and asked that his name not be misused for advertising purposes.

Orgone and its related concepts were quickly denounced in the post-World War II American press. Reich and his students were seen as a “cult of sex and anarchy,” at least in part because orgone was linked with the title of his book The Function of the Orgasm, and this led to numerous investigations as a communist and denunciation under a wide variety of other pretexts. He was, as the New York Times later put it, “much maligned”. The psychoanalytical community of the time saw his approach to healing diseases as quackery of the worst sort, partly because of his comments about UFOs. In 1954, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration successfully sought an injunction to prevent Reich from making medical claims relating to orgone, which  prevented him from shipping “orgone devices” across state lines.

Some of Reich’s observations have been replicated by other researchers. Stefan Müschenich, in his Master’s thesis, demonstrated effects of orgone accumulators on test subjects in keeping with Reich’s original descriptions, while subjects exposed to a known “dummy box” showed no such effects. As of 2007, the National Institutes of Health database PubMed, and the Web of Science database, contained only 4 or 5 peer-reviewed scientific papers published  dealing with orgone therapy.

Some psychotherapists and psychologists practicing various kinds of Body Psychotherapy and Somatic Psychology have continued to use Reich’s proposed emotional-release methods and character-analysis ideas.

In popular culture

Orgone was used in the writings of several prominent beat generation authors, who were fascinated by both its purported curative and sexual aspects. To that extent, it is heavily associated with the 1950s counterculture movement, though it did not carry over into the more extensive movements of the 1960s.

William S. Burroughs

William S. Burroughs was a major proponent of orgone research, who often included it as part of the surreal imagery in his novels. Orgone interested Burroughs particularly because he believed that it could be used to ease or alleviate “junk sickness”—a popular term for heroin withdrawal. This fitted well in the context of his novels, which were usually narrative recreations of his own experiences with narcotics and the Beat life.

Burroughs explicitly compares “kicking the habit” to cancer in the novel Junky, and ties it to the use of orgone accumulators. He writes:

At the time that Burroughs was writing, orgone accumulators were only available from Reich’s Orgone Institute in New York, offered for a ten dollar per month donation. Burroughs built his own instead, substituting rock wool for the sheet iron, but believed it still achieved the desired effect. Burroughs writes about what occurred once he started using the accumulator:

Jack Kerouac

In Jack Kerouac’s popular novel On the Road, the orgone accumulator was treated more as another type of drug than as a medical device: primarily a stimulant, with strong sexual overtones. When Sal Paradise visits Old Bull Lee in the novel, Lee’s orgone accumulator is described as follows:

The 2012 film of Kerouac’s novel includes the scene described above, but adds a small window in the accumulator and a funnel to breathe through.

J.D. Salinger

According to his daughter, J.D. Salinger would sometimes use an orgone accumulator, among an assortment of other alternative health regimens.

Orson Bean

Noted American actor and raconteur Orson Bean was once a proponent of orgone therapy and published a well-received book about it entitled Me and the Orgone.

Dušan Makavejev

Dušan Makavejev opened his 1971 satirical film W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism with documentary coverage of Reich and his development of orgone accumulators, combining this with other imagery and a fictional sub-plot in a collage mocking sexual and political authorities. Scenes include one of only “ten or fifteen orgone boxes left in the country” at that time.


British space rockers Hawkwind released the track “Orgone Accumulator” as the first track on side three of the 1972 live album, Space Ritual.

Woody Allen

Woody Allen’s 1973 comedy science fiction movie Sleeper features an orgasmatron—a cylinder big enough to hold one or two people, containing some future technology that rapidly induces orgasms. This is required as almost all people in the movie’s universe are impotent or frigid, although males of Italian descent are considered the least impotent of all groups. It has been suggested that the orgasmatron was a parody of Reich’s orgone accumulator.

Kate Bush

The song “Cloudbusting” by British singer Kate Bush describes Reich’s arrest and incarceration through the eyes of his son, Peter. The 1985 video, in which Donald Sutherland plays Wilhelm Reich during his research and subsequent arrest, features a Foucault pendulum as an alternative method of demonstrating the rotational motion of the earth to prove the heretical view that the Earth was not the centre of the Universe. The Foucault pendulum in this video simultaneously connects and contrasts the disgraced Wilhelm Reich to both of the respected Foucaults, the scientist, Jean Bernard Léon Foucault and the philosopher, Michel Foucault, who had died one year prior to the video in 1984.


The new wave ’80s band Devo claimed that their iconic energy dome design was used to recycle the wasted orgone energy that flows from a person’s head. Devo cofounder Mark Mothersbaugh has said:

Evelyn Waugh

An orgone accumulator plays an important role in the semi-autobiographical Evelyn Waugh novel The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold. A neighbour to Mr. Pinfold owns a box, and with it he experiments on Mr Pinfold’s wife. Later, in a hallucinatory state, Mr Pinfold imagines that his problems have originated from that box.

Warren Leight

Warren Leight’s play, Side Man, contains a scene where Gene and Terry receive an orgone box that Gene’s friend’s wife made him get rid of.

Hal Duncan

In Hal Duncan’s book Ink, one of alternative realities is orgone-based, i.e. orgone  is used as primary energy source.

Peep Show

In the Channel 4 comedy series Peep Show episode “Mark’s Women”, Jeremy joins a cult, Spiritual Wellness, which defines Orgones as “the invisible molecules of universal life energy which govern our moods and our actions”, with negative Orgones being the sources of all the problems in the world. Mark is concerned that Jeremy has joined a cult, and tries to explain that this is an over simplistic view of the world.

Lupin the Third

In episode 11 of the Lupin III television specials, the enemy wants the secrets of the Columbus Files and the Columbus Egg, which involve the mysterious Orgone energy.


Orgone energy features prominently in the science-fiction world of video game Redline, released in 1999.

Captain Earth

In the anime series Captain Earth, Orgone energy is the source of power and sustenance for the invading aliens, the Kill-T-Gang, who plan to harvest it from the libidos of all humanity. It is also the power behind the Livlaster guns used by the protagonists.

See also

Alexander Gurwitsch

Ark of the Covenant

Animal magnetism of Franz Anton Mesmer


Energy medicine

Fringe science

List of ineffective cancer treatments

Odic force of Carl Reichenbach

Rupert Sheldrake



External links

This video shows a fringe viewpoint on orgone, reflecting the personal views of James DeMeo.

Institutions investigating orgone

, Argentinian site on Orgonomy





Posted on

Quartz crystals, energy and Reiki: an introduction.

Quartz crystals are used primarily for two purposes: to balance the energies of the body, healing the imbalance, or to protect an environment, once the quartz crystal or amethyst loaded. To effect a cure through rose quartz crystals, natural rock that symbolizes love and kindness and eliminating bad energy is used.

a tool fully formed by this crystal called “pink edge”, a thick rod pointed on one side to concentrate energy, and blunt or rounded on the other to perform a massage when necessary is used. When the tapered portion is used the energy is concentrated at one point by the person performing the treatment. This is therefore ideal when pain or discomfort focuses on a specific point or a small area.

To effect treatment rose quartz tip as if it were an extension of the hand is held, the energy is concentrated at the tip of the glass and the tip is directed towards the area to be treated. should not press the tip of the glass as it can disturb the person being treated. People experienced in healing with Reiki and other therapies know how to use the tips and where to direct the energy to a better result.

When the blunt tip side rose quartz is used, the purpose is to perform a massage also bring the benefits of an energy balance for use of the tip of quartz. It is done with caution in some cases, posing the blunt part of rose quartz crystal, light pressure and making a massage with small circles on the site to be treated, and if the area is linear longitudinal movement is performed.

You can also use natural rocks and white quartz or rose quartz for protection. Any kind of natural rock crystal form can be used for this procedure.

It must be loaded glass always positive energy, since otherwise the effect would be negative and that is what is to be avoided. In fact, once downloaded the quartz crystal of positive energy, it will start charging with energy from the environment,


be it positive or negative, so you need to regenerate the energy that we want to use -clean the quartz crystal and recargarlo- if we want a positive effect forever.

Should the protective glass in a place where no puda touch, as this would interfere with the energy deposited on the glass. The energy charge is done through a reiki session, opening the session, charging the glass and depositing it in the place it should occupy, away from other people.
It is recommended to use intuition to detect the load of the glass, but when in doubt a load of about 15 minutes a day is enough to ensure that the glass is full of energy we want.

Quartz jewelry and shapes like pendulums, balls, earrings, Merkabas white quartz, amethyst or rose quartz,

They can provide positive or negative energies and protection if properly loaded with Reiki. They are also susceptible to absorb the energies of the environment so worth be careful and dedicate time cleaning, loading and care. To upload your jewel quartz or glass cupping it with both hands hanging on the hole to load it into a reiki session is held.

Pendulous white quartz, rose quartz or amethyst.

They can be used to detect changes within oneself or one, or check the status of our chakras.

To do this you must know the pendulum and the movements performed in a session called “training” of the pendulum. This procedure is used to find out how the pendulum responds to positive and negative signals, repeating “Yes” and seeing how it reacts the pendulum movement, corresponding to its way of saying “Yes”, and how reacts to “No” or responds negatively, by the same procedure.

Once the movement of the quartz crystal pendulum is known against positive and negative stimuli, that is how you say “Yes” and “No” can be placed on a chakra to see if it moves, and if the move represents a “Yes” or ” Do not”. The only complication is whether the pendulum once said “Yes” or “No” means that the chakra works well or that needs to be addressed. This is learned through experience and practice with pendulums, and also recommended intuition to not completely rely on an external object in self recognition.

Working with energies is important to be able to recognize their own energy without using objects, first, that can be very useful but should not be the basis of training and experience in self-knowledge and self-exploration.

You can use a quartz crystal, clear crystal, clear quartz, amethyst, rose quartz, obsidian… any form of quartz

but the most important thing is that you learn yourself little by little and learn how to live a positive, stress free and happy life 🙂

We hope this little guide has helped you a bit to understand how and to which a crystal is used as a pendulum and it will also help develop your inner energy and a better understanding of yourself / a.

In the next post we’ll show you how to clean the quartz crystal and how to protect not to lose power.

Do not miss the next post!

Posted in accessories, UncategorizedTagged amethyst, quartz, white quartz, rose quartz, positive energy, energies, meditation, merkaba, reiki, healing, tetrahedron

Posted on

The Power of the Quartz Crystals


In the world of the minerals, crystals are the most similar to our being

because they were created so that they could become our best friends

One of the best ways to take out the energy that we have accumulated throughout long time in our bodies and to be able to achieve to communication with our heart is through the usage of the quartz crystals.

These wonderful beings are the most evolved minerals in energy because they are compounded by the four elements: water, earth, fire, and wind, which intervened for its creation, by which we should use them for our benefit.

One of the mission that they fulfill is to help us activate our energy, to perceive it so that when we awake the centers of our physical body we can obtain a better perspective of our actions, feelings and thoughts.

When we take them we can make their energy to conjugate with ours and they can start activating our energy, and this is what we have to do if we are looking for our senses to get better.

The interior of the quartz crystals encloses a magical world.

They are very much alive

The main thing that we have to know is that each crystal is a living being, although it might seem to us that we are just dealing with a piece of roc.

In my case I had an idea that the minerals, by being part of nature, they had life, but I did not know in which level until my Master told me:

“Search inside it, look for his face and you will find it, ask for his strength and give him your heart so he can give you his”.

These phrases seemed strange for me, but because he was my Master I wanted to do it. And so, I stood long time searching for the being that was inside the quartz crystal and even though I never thought I could see it, after some time observing it I found myself with the true crystal.

They are truly beings like us! They are beings of energy and each of us are able to see them inside the quartz crystal. That moment is magical and important. But we have to know that we are not going to identify a physical form or a face like we usually know, but rather something different: it will be a sensation, a feeling.

Right in the moment that we feel something different it means that we are already connected with our quartz crystal, that our internal being already had contact with him. It will be a  conscious communication that we will not remember, but we are going to feel like when we talk very much with someone about what hurts us or about what we feel.

It is moment in which two beings can unite, our spirit and the quartz crystal, and it is magical because we open to a being that will open to us as well

It is  a conjugation of energies that is going to help us liberate what we have accumulated by years in our body, like frustrations, thoughts and pain that we have felt since our childhood. In addition, that connection will activate our energy that is stuck.

An example of a polished quartz crystal that we should avoid having.

How to obtain them?

The best way to acquire a quartz crystal is to found it in some place in the nature, like in the woods for example.

You can go walking and see one,  when that happens it is because that quartz crystal comes from a magical place, the world of the crystals, and that got to where are because we are going to need it in our life

This is why it is important that when we find one and we are not near a mine, to keep it with us because it is a very special being.

Usually, all the people in the world have to run into one at some point in their life, because they are really important for our existence.

The second best way to obtain a quartz crystal is by receiving it as a gift from someone. If this were the case it is because our being communicated with that close person and told him of the need for the activation of our energy and to find something that will help us feel better.

On the other hand, it is not so good to buy it because in this way you send a heavy energy to it, because you not only think of it, but also that you have to pay to acquire it and that energy gets impregnated in the quartz crystal and it is harder to clean off.

It is better to be exchanged with someone you love, to be given to us and for us to give a quartz crystal to them.

It is essential to stand out that the quartz crystal that we choose must be natural not polished. What happens is that these kind of procedures alters their energy because it is like a mutilation for them. When going through this, the quartz crystal loses a great part of its nature, which is peace and harmony.

If you polish a quartz crystal without asking for its permission and forgiveness for what you are thinking to do, it is like taking its life away, all its energy.

This can be proved by comparing a one that is pure and another that is polished, this last one looks like glass because it no longer has life. We are going to feel it when we touch it, in the texture, by the energy that stays in our hands.

And this danger is also for the quartz crystals which are mistreated, the advantage is that these can actually recover thanks to the love that we can give them.

Regarding the quartz crystal cluster, you deal with a single being that when it is divided takes different personalities. Each quartz crystal has a special energy that is unique, if it breaks all its parts become different beings. We can think that they lose strength but they do not, each piece acquires an own personality and energy.

The color of the quartz crystal does not matter, they all work for the same purposes.

The proper way to clean it…

Once we have it with us, we have to establish a communication, to talk to it and to welcome it. After this, it will be necessary to clean it.

The first step is to place water in a glass or clay recipient. After this, we will activate the channels that we have in our hands rubbing them to open them. And so, we can program the water when placing our hand palms over the water to speak to its elementals and to activate its energy saying:

“Brothers, I am going to place a quartz crystal so that you can help me purify it from any energy and for you to give it the energy that you have”.

Right away you place the quartz crystal in the recipient and put it where the light of the sun and the moon hits it. If you have a back yard, you set it in the middle of the place and we leave it there all night.

You can take it out the next day at noon. You take the recipient with water and you empty it at the same time that you thank it for the cleaning and  energy that it gave.

Now our quartz crystal is free from any energy that does not belong to it and we can program it for whatever we feel is our biggest need.

The quartz crystals must have a safe refuge or place where no one else touches them, the best thing to do is to find one which is mounted that we can always carry with us in a chain.

If what we have are not mounted quartz crystals then we need to have them in a cloth bag which can be red, black or white. Every 7 seven days you have to alternate the color. It is important that the bag is not made of plastic or leather.

It is better to avoid for people to see your quartz crystal.

Attention, do not touch

Between our ancestors and the quartz crystals always existed an excellent relationship, because they said that they gave a part of their soul to them. This occurs from the moment in which we establish communication with our quartz crystal because in that moment we give our energy to it, in such a way that its energy and yours are contained inside the quartz crystal.

In the moment when someone comes and touches it the communication breaks as well as its activity, it goes back to “sleep” because it received an unknown energy that nullifies all for what you programmed it.

This is because people go through the day between positive and negative energies that get to us, like concerns or frustrations, by which our body is anxious to liberate them and when it sees something like the quartz crystal that can help, it immediately liberates everything into it.  

When someone touches your quartz crystal they pass on their vibration to you. It is also not recommendable for that person to do this because they leave a part of their energy inside the quartz crystal.

When they touch it they liberate all their negative energy, and even though they go away that connection remains, by which their energy will keep flowing towards the quartz crystal and they will keep liberating energy from their body In excess. With this, the person suffers an energy leak that manifests by making you feel tired, dizzy, or with headaches that could last up to two days.

If this happens to us, then we have to repeat the cleaning and programming procedure.

At bad times they help us to feel better.

They offer multiple usages

One of the main purposes for which we could program our quartz crystal is as a protection so that the negative energies that are around us do not harm us. But there are infinite purposes for which we could make good use of them.

For example, we could use one to attract our soul mate, to help us find our mission, to awaken our chakras and centers of energy, etc..

If we want it for minor healing like a headache, we can ask it to help us liberate the energy that we have stuck in our body.

Another example is that if we are having problems with our liver it means that it is not activating its energy and this can damage our body more and it could start to have more problems. In this case we tell our quartz crystal to help us liberate the energy so that the organ can be fine again.

We put it in the place wherever we feel for it and we are going to ask for it to stat to act. We look for a way in which we can set it and we pass it through the place where we have the discomfort, at the same time that we say something like:

“Each seven times I am going to let you absorb the energy and liberate it.

Then each seven times we shake it in the air and we do it in cycles as we feel we should.

For more complicated healing you would have to use more quartz crystals and different rocks because each one has a special energy that comes from Earth. In addition, you would need to use the four elements as well.

It is also possible to use them when being ate any negative situation, for example if you are scared you can grab a quartz crystal and ask for it to give you the required energy for that situation or equally if you are going to a test or a job interview. Your quartz crystal is going to help you because it absorbs the negative energies of the situation you are going through so that they cannot affect you.

The same happens when you get into a fight, but first you ask for its forgiveness because you are going to empty your bad vibes into it.

In this case what we can do is to take it with both hands and to ask to our body to empty the bad energy through our hands and we pass it to the quartz crystal seven times.

Afterwards, with much care we put it in a recipient with water so it can be cleaned again. We empty the liquid with precaution so that nothing that remained in the water can fall somewhere.

Of course we can always compensate our quartz crystal with something that he likes very much, which is the sea bath because the four elements are there. In this place they find an energy very much alike to what created them. Let it bathe a while in the sea water and afterwards you can set it in the sand for a while more so it can take much more energy.

Quartz crystals get charged a million times more if you take them to the sea rather if you just put them in recipient with sea water. What is most recommendable is to leave them at least 10 minutes because they clean themselves first and then they start to absorb everything.

They are happy at our side and you will notice it, each time you will see it shinier.

To communicate with our heart

Last but not least it is necessary to emphasize that we need to have a communication with our quartz crystal like with any person. To feel that we are dealing with a living being that is happy at our side.

 Some say that you have to hold your quartz crystal in a special way, but only your heart is going to tell you in which way you have to.

Maybe you will feel to stare at it or to set it somewhere, the communication is not going to be the same always.

But this is always true, we have to look at it at all times as a friend that will help us activate our energy, so we have to ask for it to give us the exact position so we can achieve conjunction with it.

The best way to treat a being is with your heart. You do not need to base yourself in books, but rather only to find again that path that we already had from the beginning of time, that communication that will be for our own benefit.

Posted on

Clear Quartz Crystals


Embody The White Ray… Clear White Spiritual Light

Clear Quartz Crystal Cathedral Formation

Clear Quartz Crystals are some of the most common types of crystal on the planet.

Although they are called ‘clear quartz’, they range from crystal clear stone through to milky or cloudy, almost opaque crystals.

They also occur in a variety of shapes and configurations, although most of them are of a similar hexagonal structure.

The dominant mineral in this stone is silicon, and you will find them on every continent on earth.

Also known as rock crystals, they have a very strong vibration and excellent metaphysical properties, and are the easiest crystals to program, which may used for a variety of purposes.

This is why they are utilized in industry and are used to make silicon chips for computers and radios and other man made devices.

Where Does It Come From?

Clear quartz can be found on almost every continent in the world, but not always as the beautiful stones that we associate with Clear Quartz Crystals.

It is in Brazil, Madagascar and the Arkansas region in the USA that we find some of the best clear crystal, quartz that comes in a variety of different formations.

Beautiful high vibration quartz crystals may be found in many areas of the world, and these stones embody the vibration of the area that they originate from.

Clear quartz occurs in a number of different formations, in various hexagonal structures, and these formations have been given specific names so they can be recognized.

There are so many that they are a separate subject, but they each have particular attributes. They are used for specific purposes for which the specific configurations are known.

Some of these crystals are particularly lovely stones, with a high vibration and may be used for healing with quartz crystals.

Why Would You Use It

Even though these crystals may be quite common, many of these stones have a very high vibration.  They resonate strongly within the eighth chakra, commonly known as the soul star chakra, and within the higher transpersonal chakras.

The beautiful clear white light of the white ray is your connection to the Divine Mind, and white is the color for the eighth chakra. Using Clear Quartz crystals will assist the higher chakras to emanate white light and aids your connection with spirit.

These crystals also create a powerful resonance within both the third eye chakraand the crown chakra, which is the highest chakra in the physical body.

gorgeous Clear Quartz Crystal Cluster ~ A Bridge Crystal With Many Twin Soulmate Crystals ~ It is
also a Barnacle Crystal, as it has many tiny crystals growing on it!

The crown chakra connects you up to the soul star chakra, situated in the etheric body above the head. It brings clarity to your communication and will amplify your thoughts and may assist you by stimulating clearer thinking.

It has a strong resonance, which is why it is commonly used by healers as part of crystal healing, and it has a positive effect on all chakras as it protects the aura and expands the human energy field.

Although this stone is usually thought of as one of the chakra stones for the higher chakras, it will aid all chakras.