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How body energy can be affected by minerals and metals -gold-

When studying energies, we find that in some older societies and older countries, gold was used for healing or was thought to have had healing properties. They used, at that time, 24-karat gold, not gold alloyed with other metals. Other metals change the properties of the pure gold and the vibrations emitting from it. If a person took pure gold and put it on an infection or a sore spot, it was said to help heal the wound and control infection. It was considered that gold possessed an energy that brought warm, soothing vibrations to the body to aid healing, for when the body relaxes and the blood vessels in the cells aren’t as constricted, blood can move through the tissue spaces more easily. Since all healing is the growth of new cells replacing the dead cells, the body would heal much better and faster, just as those people who have learned to meditate and use the other various arts of relaxation can testify.

In studying the different uses of gold in the healing arts, we find that for thousands of years acupuncturists used silver and gold needles. It was said that gold is warm and stimulating while silver contains a cold, inhibiting factor.

In some areas of India, if a man had hemorrhoids, he would wear a silver ring around his left little finger. In studying reflexologies and acupuncture meridians and other related sciences, you will find that the little finger reflexes with the anal area of the body, thus silver would have a tendency to make their tissues contract and help to cure the hemorrhoidal condition, as hemorrhoids are a malfunction of the muscles of the blood vessel walls. Today, modern acupuncturists use only steel needles. The art of feeling and knowing the different vibrations caused by various metals within the body’s energy systems has been virtually lost. Even today, however, there are some acupuncturists who will use a gold bead, sometimes only a 64th of an inch in diameter. The bead is placed on a small square of adhesive tape. It is then taped to an acupuncture meridian that is low in energy. The gold bead will pick up more energy from the surroundings and give the meridian a boost.

Colors also have an influence on health. Color is vibration; some colors are healing, some are stimulating, and others work against the healing process. Gold is warm and dilates the tissues and relaxes the injured area, permitting repair to be a little faster. Some kings and queens would wear a crown of gold on their heads or a gold band that would go around the entire head. In studying reflexology and acupuncture, you will find that the electrical meridians of the body are the electrical circuits of the body and are influenced by gold. Gold also can be used as a sort of jumper wire that allows the energy to go from one meridian that is normal and strong to one that is weaker and not functioning as well. It gives power to the weak or shocked meridians. Thus, it helps the body to heal itself in many respects.

Also, I found that colored stones were used for their healing properties as well. For example, a diamond would be cut so that it created prisms which would break the sunlight into different vibrations. These vibrations would be used by the body for healing. Remember, the body does the healing, not the medicines or chemicals or vibrations or anything else. All healing is a growth of new cells taking the place of old dead cells. Nothing can heal unless it can make cells.

Gold is believed to have a relaxing effect. When you feel something made of 24-karat gold it will have a soft, velvety texture. Nothing feels like pure gold. But it loses its effectiveness when combined with other metals.

Royalty put diamonds and emeralds in their crowns; they put rubies and other precious stones around their bodies. What made them precious? The fact that they helped heal and ease pain in the body. Only kings, noblemen and merchants could afford such luxuries as crowns, rings and bracelets. Gold and precious stones were not made for adornment at first, but were used as a preventive technique as well as a curing aid, adding energy to that part of the hand which reflexes areas of the body experiencing health problems.

Other minerals also have an effect upon the body. Here’s an experiment which will prove to you that your body has an influence on metal. Take several small pieces of metal: a regular steel sewing needle, an iron nail, a piece of copper, some silver, gold, and other types of metals. Tie a piece of string about six inches long to each of the pieces of metal, then take one of those pieces of string with metal tied to it, and hang it like you would a pendulum. Stand facing north, holding the string about a foot out in front of you. The piece of metal at the end of the string should be about level with your belly button. Just hold it there. Pretty soon you will begin to see it move or swing in certain directions. After you observe which way it swings, make a note of it. Face south, and you’ll find that it has a different swing. Try facing east and notice the difference again. Face west and notice the difference. Remember, it’s the same piece of metal, the same body, the same spot, but by facing in different directions you will find the metal pendulum will swing in different directions. The pendulum may swing in different directions for different people. Do that with each of the different metals you have. Your body and the environment have a definite effect on the metal. Likewise, when the metal touches you, your body has a reaction to the metal as well.

So, in conclusion, many of the ways of the past have been lost but not forgotten. Energies do exist; they do affect the body. Gold is precious, and its power and energy can be felt. Just put a pound of it in safe keeping and notice how good you feel-spiritually, mentally and physically. However, knowledge of energies and how they affect your health is more valuable than gold. If you don’t believe me, just ask a rich man who has lost his health.

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Mindfulness: the key to happiness. Health and balance: quick tips

Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one’s attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment, which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training. The term “mindfulness” is a translation of the Pali-term sati, which is a significant element of some Buddhist traditions. The recent popularity of mindfulness in the West is generally considered to have been initiated by Jon Kabat-Zinn.

Large population-based research studies have indicated that the practice of mindfulness is strongly correlated with well-being and perceived health. Studies have also shown that rumination and worry contribute to mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety, and that mindfulness-based interventions are effective in the reduction of both rumination and worry.

Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people who are experiencing a variety of psychological conditions. reducing stress, anxiety, Recent studies demonstrate that mindfulness meditation significantly attenuates pain through multiple, unique mechanisms. It has gained worldwide popularity as a distinctive method to handle emotions.

Clinical studies have documented both physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children. Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adapted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.

Meditation

Mindfulness meditation is practiced sitting with eyes closed, cross-legged on a cushion, or on a chair, with the back straight. Attention is put on the movement of the abdomen when breathing in and out, or on the awareness of the breath as it goes in and out the nostrils. If one becomes distracted from the breath, one passively notices one’s mind has wandered, but in an accepting, non-judgmental way and one returns to focusing on breathing. A famous exercise, introduced by Kabat-Zinn in his MBSR-program, is the mindful tasting of a raisin, in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully.

Meditators start with short periods of 10 minutes or so of meditation practice per day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing. Research on the neural perspective of how mindfulness meditation works suggests that it exerts its effects in components of attention regulation, body awareness and emotional regulation. When considering aspects such as sense of responsibility, authenticity, compassion, self-acceptance and character, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation contributes to a more coherent and healthy sense of self and identity. Neuroimaging techniques suggest that mindfulness practices such as mindfulness meditation are associated with “changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network and default mode network structures.” Further, mindfulness-induced emotional and behavioral changes have been found to be related to functional and structural changes in the brain.

Translations and definitions

Buddhism  

Mindfulness meditation can be defined in many ways and can be used for a variety of different therapies. When defining mindfulness meditation, it is useful to draw upon Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology.

Sati and smṛti

The Buddhist term translated into English as “mindfulness” originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. According to Robert Sharf, the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion. Smṛti originally meant “to remember,” “to recollect,” “to bear in mind,” as in the Vedic tradition of remembering the sacred texts. The term sati also means “to remember.” In the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta the term sati means to remember the dharmas, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen. Sharf refers to the Milindapañha, which explained that the arisement of sati calls to mind the wholesome dhammas such as the four establishings of mindfulness, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven awakening-factors, the noble eight-factored path, and the attainment of insight. According to Rupert Gethin,

Sharf further notes that this has little to do with “bare attention,” the popular contemporary interpretation of sati, “since it entails, among other things, the proper discrimination of the moral valence of phenomena as they arise.”

Translation

The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids  first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in sammā-sati “Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind”. Noting that Daniel John Gogerly  initially rendered sammā-sati as “Correct meditation“, Davids explained,

Alternate translations

John D. Dunne asserts that the translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish “retention” as the preferred alternative.

Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of “sati” as “memory”. The terms sati/smriti have also been translated as:

Attention

Awareness

Concentrated attention

Inspection

Mindful attention

Self-recollection

Recollecting mindfulness

Recollection

Secondary consciousness

Retention

Presence  Dav Panesar

Remindfulness

Psychology

A.M. Haynes and G. Feldman have highlighted that mindfulness can be seen as a strategy that stands in contrast to a strategy of avoidance of emotion on the one hand and to the strategy of emotional overengagement on the other hand. Mindfulness can also be viewed as a means to develop wisdom. A distinction can also be made between the state of mindfulness and the trait of mindfulness.

According to David S. Black, whereas “mindfulness” originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and “a capacity attainable only by certain people”, scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness. Black mentions three possible domains:

# A trait, a dispositional characteristic, a person’s tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states;

# A state, an outcome, being in a state of present-moment awareness;

# A practice .

Trait-like constructs

According to Brown, mindfulness is

Seven mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs:

Mindful Attention Awareness Scale

Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory

Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills

Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale

Mindfulness Questionnaire

Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale

Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale

State-like phenomenon

According to Bishop et al., mindfulness is

The Toronto Mindfulness Scale  measures mindfulness as a state-like phenomenon, that is evoked and maintained by regular practice.

Mindfulness-practice

Mindfulness as a practice is described as:

“Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices

“Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally” proposed a two-component model of mindfulness:

In this two-component model, self-regulated attention  “involves bringing awareness to current experience – observing and attending to the changing fields of “objects”, from moment to moment – by regulating the focus of attention”. Orientation to experience  involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state, but rather to just notice each object that arises in the stream of consciousness.

According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, mindfulness may also refer to “a state of being aware”. Synonyms for this “state of being aware” are wakefulness, attention, alertness, prudence, It leads to insight into the true nature of reality, namely the three marks of existence, the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self. With this insight, the practitioner becomes a socalled Sotāpanna, a “stream-enterer”, the first stage on the path to liberation. Vipassana is practiced in tandem with samatha, and also plays a central role in other Buddhist traditions such as Tibetan Buddhism.

According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way in early Buddhism to liberation, “constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths.” According to Vetter, dhyana may have been the original core practice of the Buddha, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness.

According to Rhys Davids, the doctrine of mindfulness is “perhaps the most important” after the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.

Transcendentalism

Kabat-Zinn himself refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with the other eminent Transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman:

The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were themselves influenced by Transcendentalism and other 19th-century manifestations of Western esotericism. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church, which in India collaborated with Ram Mohan Roy  and his Brahmo Samaj. He found that Unitarianism came closest to true Christianity, and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians. This influence worked through on Vivekananda, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west. Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention, which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the Buddhist sutras through English translations from the Pali Text Society. It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the Theosophical Society. Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings of D.T. Suzuki, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes.

Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR

In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction  program at the University of Massachusetts to treat the chronically ill. This program sparked the application of mindfulness ideas and practices in Medicine for the treatment of a variety of conditions in both healthy and unhealthy people. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.

Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern World, particularly from Buddhist traditions. One of MBSR’s techniques – the “body scan” – was derived from a meditation practice  of the Burmese U Ba Khin tradition, as taught by S. N. Goenka in his Vipassana retreats, which he began in 1976. It has since been widely adapted in secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts.

Popularization, “mindfulness movement”

Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology. and can be practiced outside a formal setting. The terminology used by scholars of religion, scientists, journalists, and popular media writers to describe this movement of mindfulness “popularization,” and the many new contexts of mindfulness practice which have cropped up, has regularly evolved over the past 20 years, with some criticisms arising.

Buddhism

Sati is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. “Correct” or “right” mindfulness  is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path.

Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a ‘power’  which contributes to the attainment of nirvana. This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion  have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.

Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassana

Anapanasati is mindfulness of breathing. “Sati” means mindfulness; “ānāpāna” refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The Anapanasati Sutta gives an exposition on this practice.

Satipaṭṭhāna is the establishment of mindfulness in one’s day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one’s body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom .

Vipassanā is insight into the true nature of reality, According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation.

Vipassanā-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Theravāda Buddhism meditation practices, which employs vipassanā and ānāpāna meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the Sutta.

Samprajaña, apramāda and atappa

In Buddhist practice, “mindfulness” also includes samprajaña, meaning “clear comprehension” and apramāda meaning “vigilance”. All three terms are sometimes  translated as “mindfulness”, but they all have specific shades of meaning.

In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan Wallace, Bodhi has described Ven. Nyanaponika Thera’s views on “right mindfulness” and sampajañña as follows:

“Bare attention”

Georges Dreyfus has expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as “bare attention” or “nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness”, stressing that mindfulness in Buddhist context means also “remembering”, which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information.

Therapy programs

Mindfulness-based stress reduction

Mindfulness-based stress reduction  is a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and yoga to help people become more mindful. In recent years, meditation has been the subject of controlled clinical research. This suggests it may have beneficial effects, including stress reduction, relaxation, and improvements to quality of life, but that it does not help prevent or cure disease. While MBSR has its roots in spiritual teachings, the program itself is secular.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy  is a psychological therapy designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with Major depressive disorder . It uses traditional cognitive behavioral therapy  methods and adds in newer psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression. Mindfulness and mindfulness meditation, focus on becoming aware of all incoming thoughts and feelings and accepting them, but not attaching or reacting to them.

Like CBT, MBCT functions on the theory that when individuals who have historically had depression become distressed, they return to automatic cognitive processes that can trigger a depressive episode. The goal of MBCT is to interrupt these automatic processes and teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming stimuli, and instead accepting and observing them without judgment.

Acceptance and commitment therapy

Acceptance and commitment therapy or   is a form of clinical behavior analysis  used in psychotherapy. It is an empirically based psychological intervention that uses acceptance and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. The approach was originally called comprehensive distancing. It was developed in the late 1980s by Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson, and Kirk Strosahl.

Dialectical behavior therapy

Mindfulness is a “core” exercise used in dialectical behavior therapy, a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with borderline personality disorder. DBT is dialectic, explains Linehan, in the sense of “the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis.” As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:

Mode deactivation therapy

Mode deactivation therapy  is a treatment methodology that is derived from the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and incorporates elements of Acceptance and commitment therapy, Dialectical behavior therapy, and mindfulness techniques. Mindfulness techniques such as simple breathing exercises are applied to assist the client in awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of unpleasant and distressing thoughts and feelings as they occur in the present moment. Mode Deactivation Therapy was developed and is established as an effective treatment for adolescents with problem behaviors and complex trauma-related psychological problems, according to recent publications by Jack A. Apsche and Joan Swart.

Other programs

Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain, stress, anxiety and depression, substance abuse, and recurrent suicidal behavior . Bell  gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly family therapy, starting with a discussion of mysticism and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.

Morita therapy

The Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita, who trained in Zen meditation, developed Morita therapy upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment. Since the beginnings of Gestalt therapy in the early 1940s, mindfulness, referred to as “awareness”, has been an essential part of its theory and practice.

Adaptation Practice

The British doctor Clive Sherlock developed Adaptation Practice in 1977. Adaptation Practice is a structured programme of self-discipline.

Hakomi therapy

Hakomi therapy, under development by Ron Kurtz and others, is a somatic psychology based upon Asian philosophical precepts of mindfulness and nonviolence.

IFS

Internal Family Systems Model, developed by Richard C. Schwartz, emphasizes the importance of both therapist and client engaging in therapy from the Self, which is the IFS term for one’s “spiritual center”. The Self is curious about whatever arises in one’s present experience and open and accepting toward all manifestations.

Mindfulness relaxation

Mindfulness relaxation uses breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.

Scientific research

Mindfulness has gained increasing empirical attention ever since 1970. According to a 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, evidence supports the use of mindfulness programs to alleviate symptoms of a variety of mental and physical disorders. and may also prevent or delay the onset of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.

Mindfulness proved to be effective also in enhancing people’s capacity to self-regulate.

Movement

Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology.

The mindfulness movement has entered the mainstream, mainly through the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn

Mindfulness has come to be seen as a mode of being,

MindUP, a classroom-based program spearheaded by Goldie Hawn’s Hawn Foundation, teaches students to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. For the last decade, MindUP has trained teachers in over 1,000 schools in cities from Arizona to Washington.

The Holistic Life Foundation, a non-profit organization that created an in-school mindfulness program called Mindful Moment, is currently serving almost 350 students daily at Robert W. Coleman Elementary School and approximately 1300 students at Patterson Park High School in Baltimore, Maryland. At Patterson High School, the Mindful Moment program engages the school’s faculty along with the students during a 15-minute mindfulness practice at the beginning and end of each school day.

Mindful Life Project, a non-profit 5013 based out of Richmond, California, teaches mindfulness to elementary school students in underserved schools in the South Richmond school district. Utilizing curriculum, “Rise-Up” is a regular school day intervention program serving 430 students weekly, while “Mindful Community” is currently implemented at six South Richmond partner schools. These in-school mindfulness programs have been endorsed by Richmond Mayor Gayle McLaughlin, who has recommended additional funding to expand the program in order to serve all Richmond youth.

A study enrolled college students in a course about mindfulness that included guided mindfulness meditation as part of the curriculum. After the semester, pre- and post-levels for different aspects of mental health were compared and students were found to have more non-judgmental stances towards their thoughts and feelings. This is believed to result better stress coping skills, improved academic performance and quality of life. Furthermore, scores continued to improve for the weeks following the end of the course, demonstrating the long-lasting effects of mindfulness meditation.

Business

Mindfulness training appears to be getting popular in the business world, and many large corporations have been incorporating practicing mindfulness into their culture. For example, companies such as Google, Apple, Procter & Gamble, General Mills, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Army offer mindfulness coaching, meditation breaks and other resources to their employees to improve workplace functioning. Mindfulness has been found to result in better employee well-being, lower levels of frustration, lower absenteeism and burnout as well as an improved overall work environment.

Law

Legal and law enforcement organizations are also showing interest in mindfulness:

Harvard Law School’s Program on Negotiation hosted a workshop on “Mindfulness in the Law & Alternative Dispute Resolution.”

Many law firms offer mindfulness classes. Additional studies indicate that mindfulness interventions can result in significant reductions in anger, reductions in substance use, increased relaxation capacity, self-regulation and optimism.

Government

Many government organizations offer mindfulness training. Coping Strategies is an example of a program utilized by United States Armed Forces personnel. The British Parliament organized a mindfulness-session for its members in 2014, led by Ruby Wax.

Criticism

Various scholars have criticized how mindfulness has been defined or represented in recent western psychology publications.

These modern understandings depart significantly from the accounts of mindfulness in early Buddhist texts and authoritative commentaries in the Theravada and Indian Mahayana traditions. Adam Valerio has introduced the idea that conflict between academic disciplines over how mindfulness is defined, understood, and popularly presented may be indicative of a personal, institutional, or paradigmatic battle for ownership over mindfulness, one where academics, researchers, and other writers are invested as individuals in much the same way as religious communities. According to Safran, the popularity of mindfulness is the result of a marketing strategy:

“McMindfulness is the marketing of a constructed dream; an idealized lifestyle; an identity makeover.”

According to Purser and Loy, mindfulness is not being used as a means to awaken to insight in the “unwholesome roots of greed, ill will and delusion,”

Risks

In media reports, people have attributed unexpected effects of increasing fear and anxiety panic or “meltdowns” after practicing, which could expose bipolar vulnerability or repressed PTSD symptoms. However, according to one editorial, “there is a paucity of robust research that specifically assesses whether Mindfulness Based Interventions can induce non-salutatory health outcomes”.

Related concepts

Choiceless awareness

Choiceless awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in the mid-20th century by Jiddu Krishnamurti, in whose philosophy it signifies a main theme. Similar or related concepts had been previously developed in several religious or spiritual traditions; the term or others like it has also been used to describe traditional and contemporary secular and religious meditation practices. However, Krishnamurti’s approach to Choiceless Awareness was unique, and differs from both pre-existing and later-developed notions.

Nonviolent communication

Nonviolent communication  is a communication process developed by Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s. NVC often functions as a conflict resolution process. It focuses on three aspects of communication: self-empathy, empathy, and honest self-expression .

NVC is based on the idea that all human beings have the capacity for compassion and only resort to violence or behavior that harms others when they don’t recognize more effective strategies for meeting needs. Habits of thinking and speaking that lead to the use of violence  are learned through culture. NVC theory supposes all human behavior stems from attempts to meet universal human needs and that these needs are never in conflict. Rather, conflict arises when strategies for meeting needs clash. NVC proposes that if people can identify their needs, the needs of others, and the feelings that surround these needs, harmony can be achieved.

While NVC is ostensibly taught as a process of communication designed to improve compassionate connection to others, it has also been interpreted as a spiritual practice, a set of values, a parenting technique, an educational method and a worldview.

See also

Alexander Technique

Buddhism and psychology

Buddhist meditation

Sampajanna

Satipatthana

Self-compassion

Dennis Lewis

Eternal Now

Henepola Gunaratana

John Garrie

Mahasati Meditation

Mahasi Sayadaw

Metacognition

Mindfulness

Mindfulness Day

Nepsis

Ovsiankina effect

Phronesis

Religious studies

S.N. Goenka

Sacca

Satya

Satyagraha

Samu

Shinzen Young

Taqwa and dhikr, related Islamic concepts

Thich Nhat Hanh

Tiny Buddha

Transcendental Meditation

Transcendentalism

Mindfulness and technology

Notes

References

Sources

Published sources

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Siegel, R.D. . The Mindfulness Solution: Everyday Practices for Everyday Problems. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60623-294-1

Siegel, Ronald D. . . The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-294-1

Teasdale, J.D., Williams, J.M.G., Segal, Z.V. . The Mindful Way Workbook: An 8-Week Program to Free Yourself from Depression and Emotional Distress. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-0814-3

Weiss, Andrew . Beginning Mindfulness: Learning the Way of Awareness. New World Library

Williams, Mark, John Teasdale, Zindel Segal, and Jon Kabat-Zinn . The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-59385-128-6.

Williams, J.M.G., Teasdale, J.D., Segal, Z.V., Kabat-Zinn, J. . The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-59385-128-6

Web-sources

Further reading

Practice

Buddhism

William Hart, The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation As Taught by S. N. Goenka, Pariyatti

Psychology

Amanda Ie, Christelle T. Ngnoumen, Ellen J. Langer, The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness, John Wiley & Sons

Popular

Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life. Hyperion Books, 2005. ISBN 1-4013-0778-7

History

Critical

Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Williams, Mark, Mindfulness – Diverse perspectives on its meanings, origins and applications