Posted on

Reiki and the power of the soul and quartz / amethyst pointers

Reiki

is a form of alternative medicine developed in 1922 by Japanese Buddhist Mikao Usui. Since originating in Japan, Reiki has been adapted into varying cultural traditions across the world. Reiki practitioners use a technique they call palm healing or hands-on healing by which a “universal energy” is allegedly transferred through the palms of the practitioner to a patient in order to encourage healing.

Reiki is considered pseudoscience. Clinical research has not shown Reiki to be effective as a medical treatment for any medical condition. The American Cancer Society, state that Reiki should not be a replacement for conventional treatment.

Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the English alternative medicine word reiki or Reiki is etymologically from Japanese reiki  “mysterious atmosphere, miraculous sign”, combining rei “soul, spirit” and ki “vital energy”—the Sino-Japanese reading of Chinese língqì  “numinous atmosphere”. The earliest recorded English usage dates to 1975.

The Japanese reiki is commonly written as レイキ in katakana syllabary or as 霊気 in shinjitai “new character form” kanji. It compounds the words rei  and ki . Ki is additionally defined as “… spirits; one’s feelings, mood, frame of mind; temperament, temper, disposition, one’s nature, character; mind to do something, intention, will; care, attention, precaution”. Some reiki translation equivalents from Japanese-English dictionaries are: “feeling of mystery”, “an atmosphere  of mystery”, and “an ethereal atmosphere ;  a spiritual  presence.” Besides the usual Sino-Japanese pronunciation reiki, these kanji 霊気 have an alternate Japanese reading, namely ryōge, meaning “demon; ghost” .

Chinese língqì 靈氣 was first recorded in the  Neiye “Inward Training” section of the Guanzi, describing early Daoist meditation techniques. “That mysterious vital energy within the mind: One moment it arrives, the next it departs. So fine, there is nothing within it; so vast, there is nothing outside it. We lose it because of the harm caused by mental agitation.” Modern Standard Chinese língqì is translated by Chinese-English dictionaries as: ” spiritual influence or atmosphere”; “1. intelligence; power of understanding; 2. supernatural power or force in fairy tales; miraculous power or force”; and “1. spiritual influence ; 2. ingeniousness; cleverness”.

Origins

According to the inscription on his memorial stone, Usui taught his system of Reiki to more than 2,000 people during his lifetime. While teaching Reiki in Fukuyama, Usui suffered a stroke and died on 9 March 1926.

Research, critical evaluation, and controversy

Basis and effectiveness

Reiki’s teachings and adherents claim that qi is physiological and can be manipulated to treat a disease or condition. The existence of qi has not been established by medical research. Most research on Reiki is poorly designed and prone to bias. There is no reliable empirical evidence that Reiki is helpful for treating any medical condition, although some physicians have said it might help promote general well-being.

Scholarly evaluation

Reiki is used as an illustrative example of pseudoscience in scholarly texts and academic journal articles. Emily Rosa became the youngest person to publish in the medical literature at 11 years old when her school science project was published by the Journal of the American Medical Association demonstrating that Reiki pracitioners could not detect the alleged “life force” under experimental conditions.

Rhonda McClenton states, “The reality is that Reiki, under the auspices of pseudo-science, has begun the process of becoming institutionalized in settings where people are already very vulnerable.” Ferraresi et al. state, “In spite of its  diffusion, the baseline mechanism of action has not been demonstrated…” Wendy Reiboldt states about Reiki, “Neither the forces involved nor the alleged therapeutic benefits have been demonstrated by scientific testing.” Several authors have pointed to the vitalistic energy which Reiki is claimed to treat. Larry Sarner states, “Ironically, the only thing that distinguishes Reiki from Therapeutic Touch is that it involves actual touch.”

A guideline published by the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation states, “Reiki therapy should probably not be considered for the treatment of PDN .” Canadian sociologist Susan J. Palmer has listed Reiki as among the pseudoscientific healing methods used by cults in France to attract members.

Hospital usage

In April 2016 Reiki treatments were being made available at St. Mark’s Hospital in Salt Lake City. Utah. “We have two reiki masters if this is something patients are interested in,” said Rachel King, the hospital’s marketing coordinator.

Issues in the literature

One systematic review of 9 randomized clinical trials conducted by Lee, Pittler, and Ernst  found several issues in the literature on Reiki. First, several of these studies are actually funded by the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Second, depending on the tools used to measure depression and anxiety, the results varied and didn’t appear to have much reliability or validity. Furthermore, the scientific community has had issues in replicating the findings of studies that support Reiki. The authors of the review also found issues in reporting methodology in some of the literature, in that often there were parts left out completely or not clearly described. Frequently in these studies, sample sizes are not calculated and adequate allocation and conceal procedures were also not followed. In their review, Lee, Pittler, and Ernst  found that studies without double-blind procedures tended to exaggerate treatment effects as well. Additionally, there was no control for differences in experience of the Reiki administers and they found that even the same healer could produce different outcomes in different studies. None of the studies in the review provided rationale for the treatment duration in such that there is a need for an optimal dosage of Reiki to be established for further research. Another questionable issue with the Reiki research included in this systematic review was that no study reported any adverse effects. It is clear that this area of research requires further studies to be conducted that follow proper scientific method, especially since the main theory on which the therapy is based has never been scientifically proven.

Safety

Safety concerns for Reiki sessions are very low and are akin to those of many complementary and alternative medicine practices. Some physicians and health care providers however believe that patients may unadvisedly substitute proven treatments for life-threatening conditions with unproven alternative modalities including Reiki, thus endangering their health.

Catholic Church concerns

In March 2009, the Committee on Doctrine of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops issued the document Guidelines for Evaluating Reiki as an Alternative Therapy, in which they declared that the practice of Reiki was superstition, being neither truly faith healing nor science-based medicine. Since this announcement, some Catholic lay people have continued to practice reiki, but it has been removed from many Catholic hospitals and other institutions.

See also

Energy medicine

Glossary of alternative medicine

Laying on of hands

List of ineffective cancer treatments

Shinto

Vibrational medicine

References

Bibliography

External links

 

 

Bibliography:

Wikipedia

Posted on

Orgone and orgonite for energy regulation

Orgone is a pseudoscientific and spiritual concept described as an esoteric energy or hypothetical universal life force, originally proposed in the 1930s by Wilhelm Reich. Orgone was seen as a massless, omnipresent substance, similar to luminiferous aether, but more closely associated with living energy than with inert matter. It could allegedly coalesce to create organization on all scales, from the smallest microscopic units—called “bions” in orgone theory—to macroscopic structures like organisms, clouds, or even galaxies.

Reich stated that deficits or constrictions in bodily orgone were at the root of many diseases, much as deficits or constrictions in the libido could produce neuroses in Freudian theory. Reich founded the Orgone Institute ca. 1942

to pursue research into orgone energy after he immigrated to the US in 1939, and used it to publish literature and distribute material relating to the topic for more than a decade. Reich designed special “orgone accumulators”—devices ostensibly collecting and storing orgone energy from the environment—for improvement of general health or even for weather control. but this was not enough to stop the action.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health lists orgone as a type of “putative energy”.

There is no empirical support for the concept of orgone in medicine or the physical sciences, He was expelled from the Institute of Psycho-analysis because of these disagreements over the nature of the libido and his increasingly political stance. He was forced to leave Germany very soon after Hitler came to power.

Reich took an increasingly bioenergetic view of libido, perhaps influenced by his tutor Paul Kammerer and another biologist, Otto Heinrich Warburg. In the early 20th century, when molecular biology was in its infancy, developmental biology in particular still presented mysteries that made the idea of a specific life energy respectable, as was articulated by theorists such as Hans Driesch. As a psycho-analyst Reich aligned such theories with the Freudian libido, while as a materialist he believed such a life-force must be susceptible to physical experiment.

He wrote in his best known book, The Function of the Orgasm: “Between 1919 and 1921, I became familiar with Driesch’s ‘Philosophie des Organischen’ and his ‘Ordnungslehre’… Driesch’s contention seemed incontestable to me. He argued that, in the sphere of the life function, the whole could be developed from a part, whereas a machine could not be made from a screw….. However, I couldn’t quite accept the transcendentalism of the life principle. Seventeen years later I was able to resolve the contradiction on the basis of a formula pertaining to the function of energy. Driesch’s theory was always present in my mind when I thought about vitalism. The vague feeling I had about the irrational nature of his assumption turned out to be justified in the end. He landed among the spiritualists.”

The concept of orgone was the result of this work in the psycho-physiology of libido. After his migration to the US, Reich began to speculate about biological development and evolution, and then branched out into much broader speculations about the nature of the universe.

For Reich, neurosis became a physical manifestation he called “body armor”—deeply seated tensions and inhibitions in the physical body that were not separated from any mental effects that might be observed. He developed a therapeutic approach he called vegetotherapy that was aimed at opening and releasing this body armor so that free instinctive reflexes—which he considered a token of psychic well-being—could take over.

Evaluation

Orgone was closely associated with sexuality: Reich, following Freud, saw nascent sexuality as the primary energetic force of life. The term itself was chosen to share a root with the word orgasm, which both Reich and Freud took to be a fundamental expression of psychological health. This focus on sexuality, while acceptable in the clinical perspective of Viennese psychoanalytic circles, scandalized the conservative American public even as it appealed to countercultural figures like William S. Burroughs and Jack Kerouac.

In at least some cases, Reich’s experimental techniques do not appear to have been very careful, or to have taken precautions to remove experimental bias. Reich was concerned with experimental verification from other scientists. Albert Einstein agreed to participate, but thought Reich’s research lacked scientific detachment and experimental rigor; and concluded that the effect was simply due to the temperature gradient inside the room. “Through these experiments I regard the matter as completely solved,” he wrote to Reich on 7 February 1941. Upon further correspondence from Reich, Einstein replied that he could not devote any further time to the matter and asked that his name not be misused for advertising purposes.

Orgone and its related concepts were quickly denounced in the post-World War II American press. Reich and his students were seen as a “cult of sex and anarchy,” at least in part because orgone was linked with the title of his book The Function of the Orgasm, and this led to numerous investigations as a communist and denunciation under a wide variety of other pretexts. He was, as the New York Times later put it, “much maligned”. The psychoanalytical community of the time saw his approach to healing diseases as quackery of the worst sort, partly because of his comments about UFOs. In 1954, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration successfully sought an injunction to prevent Reich from making medical claims relating to orgone, which  prevented him from shipping “orgone devices” across state lines.

Some of Reich’s observations have been replicated by other researchers. Stefan Müschenich, in his Master’s thesis, demonstrated effects of orgone accumulators on test subjects in keeping with Reich’s original descriptions, while subjects exposed to a known “dummy box” showed no such effects. As of 2007, the National Institutes of Health database PubMed, and the Web of Science database, contained only 4 or 5 peer-reviewed scientific papers published  dealing with orgone therapy.

Some psychotherapists and psychologists practicing various kinds of Body Psychotherapy and Somatic Psychology have continued to use Reich’s proposed emotional-release methods and character-analysis ideas.

In popular culture

Orgone was used in the writings of several prominent beat generation authors, who were fascinated by both its purported curative and sexual aspects. To that extent, it is heavily associated with the 1950s counterculture movement, though it did not carry over into the more extensive movements of the 1960s.

William S. Burroughs

William S. Burroughs was a major proponent of orgone research, who often included it as part of the surreal imagery in his novels. Orgone interested Burroughs particularly because he believed that it could be used to ease or alleviate “junk sickness”—a popular term for heroin withdrawal. This fitted well in the context of his novels, which were usually narrative recreations of his own experiences with narcotics and the Beat life.

Burroughs explicitly compares “kicking the habit” to cancer in the novel Junky, and ties it to the use of orgone accumulators. He writes:

At the time that Burroughs was writing, orgone accumulators were only available from Reich’s Orgone Institute in New York, offered for a ten dollar per month donation. Burroughs built his own instead, substituting rock wool for the sheet iron, but believed it still achieved the desired effect. Burroughs writes about what occurred once he started using the accumulator:

Jack Kerouac

In Jack Kerouac’s popular novel On the Road, the orgone accumulator was treated more as another type of drug than as a medical device: primarily a stimulant, with strong sexual overtones. When Sal Paradise visits Old Bull Lee in the novel, Lee’s orgone accumulator is described as follows:

The 2012 film of Kerouac’s novel includes the scene described above, but adds a small window in the accumulator and a funnel to breathe through.

J.D. Salinger

According to his daughter, J.D. Salinger would sometimes use an orgone accumulator, among an assortment of other alternative health regimens.

Orson Bean

Noted American actor and raconteur Orson Bean was once a proponent of orgone therapy and published a well-received book about it entitled Me and the Orgone.

Dušan Makavejev

Dušan Makavejev opened his 1971 satirical film W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism with documentary coverage of Reich and his development of orgone accumulators, combining this with other imagery and a fictional sub-plot in a collage mocking sexual and political authorities. Scenes include one of only “ten or fifteen orgone boxes left in the country” at that time.

Hawkwind

British space rockers Hawkwind released the track “Orgone Accumulator” as the first track on side three of the 1972 live album, Space Ritual.

Woody Allen

Woody Allen’s 1973 comedy science fiction movie Sleeper features an orgasmatron—a cylinder big enough to hold one or two people, containing some future technology that rapidly induces orgasms. This is required as almost all people in the movie’s universe are impotent or frigid, although males of Italian descent are considered the least impotent of all groups. It has been suggested that the orgasmatron was a parody of Reich’s orgone accumulator.

Kate Bush

The song “Cloudbusting” by British singer Kate Bush describes Reich’s arrest and incarceration through the eyes of his son, Peter. The 1985 video, in which Donald Sutherland plays Wilhelm Reich during his research and subsequent arrest, features a Foucault pendulum as an alternative method of demonstrating the rotational motion of the earth to prove the heretical view that the Earth was not the centre of the Universe. The Foucault pendulum in this video simultaneously connects and contrasts the disgraced Wilhelm Reich to both of the respected Foucaults, the scientist, Jean Bernard Léon Foucault and the philosopher, Michel Foucault, who had died one year prior to the video in 1984.

Devo

The new wave ’80s band Devo claimed that their iconic energy dome design was used to recycle the wasted orgone energy that flows from a person’s head. Devo cofounder Mark Mothersbaugh has said:

Evelyn Waugh

An orgone accumulator plays an important role in the semi-autobiographical Evelyn Waugh novel The Ordeal of Gilbert Pinfold. A neighbour to Mr. Pinfold owns a box, and with it he experiments on Mr Pinfold’s wife. Later, in a hallucinatory state, Mr Pinfold imagines that his problems have originated from that box.

Warren Leight

Warren Leight’s play, Side Man, contains a scene where Gene and Terry receive an orgone box that Gene’s friend’s wife made him get rid of.

Hal Duncan

In Hal Duncan’s book Ink, one of alternative realities is orgone-based, i.e. orgone  is used as primary energy source.

Peep Show

In the Channel 4 comedy series Peep Show episode “Mark’s Women”, Jeremy joins a cult, Spiritual Wellness, which defines Orgones as “the invisible molecules of universal life energy which govern our moods and our actions”, with negative Orgones being the sources of all the problems in the world. Mark is concerned that Jeremy has joined a cult, and tries to explain that this is an over simplistic view of the world.

Lupin the Third

In episode 11 of the Lupin III television specials, the enemy wants the secrets of the Columbus Files and the Columbus Egg, which involve the mysterious Orgone energy.

Redline

Orgone energy features prominently in the science-fiction world of video game Redline, released in 1999.

Captain Earth

In the anime series Captain Earth, Orgone energy is the source of power and sustenance for the invading aliens, the Kill-T-Gang, who plan to harvest it from the libidos of all humanity. It is also the power behind the Livlaster guns used by the protagonists.

See also

Alexander Gurwitsch

Ark of the Covenant

Animal magnetism of Franz Anton Mesmer

Energy

Energy medicine

Fringe science

List of ineffective cancer treatments

Odic force of Carl Reichenbach

Rupert Sheldrake

Vitalism

References

External links

This video shows a fringe viewpoint on orgone, reflecting the personal views of James DeMeo.

Institutions investigating orgone

, Argentinian site on Orgonomy

 

 

Bibliography:

Wikipedia

Posted on

Amethyst history and power – purple quartz stone with mystical properties.

Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry. The name comes from the ancient Greek ἀ a-  and μέθυστος méthystos, a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. The ancient Greeks wore amethyst and made drinking vessels decorated with it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication. It is one of several forms of quartz. Amethyst is a semiprecious stone and is the traditional birthstone for February.

Structure

Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz  and owes its violet color to irradiation, iron impurities, and the presence of trace elements, which result in complex crystal lattice substitutions. The hardness of the mineral is the same as quartz, thus it is suitable for use in jewelry.

Hue and tone

Amethyst occurs in primary hues from a light pinkish violet to a deep purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and blue. The best varieties of amethyst can be found in Siberia, Sri Lanka, Brazil and the far East. The ideal grade is called “Deep Siberian” and has a primary purple hue of around 75–80%, with 15–20% blue and  red secondary hues. Green quartz is sometimes incorrectly called green amethyst, which is a misnomer and not an appropriate name for the material, the proper terminology being prasiolite. Other names for green quartz are vermarine or lime citrine.

Of very variable intensity, the color of amethyst is often laid out in stripes parallel to the final faces of the crystal. One aspect in the art of lapidary involves correctly cutting the stone to place the color in a way that makes the tone of the finished gem homogeneous. Often, the fact that sometimes only a thin surface layer of violet color is present in the stone or that the color is not homogeneous makes for a difficult cutting.

The color of amethyst has been demonstrated to result from substitution by irradiation of trivalent iron  for silicon in the structure, in the presence of trace elements of large ionic radius, but loses its dichroism, unlike genuine citrine. When partially heated, amethyst can result in ametrine.

Amethyst can fade in tone if overexposed to light sources and can be artificially darkened with adequate irradiation.

The Greeks believed amethyst gems could prevent intoxication, while medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets as protection in battle in the belief that amethysts heal people and keep them cool-headed. Beads of amethyst were found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England. Western Christian bishops wear an episcopal ring often set with an amethyst, an allusion to the description of the Apostles as “not drunk” at Pentecost in Acts 2:15.

A large geode, or “amethyst-grotto”, from near Santa Cruz in southern Brazil was presented at a 1902 exhibition in Düsseldorf, Germany.

In the 19th century, the color of amethyst was attributed to the presence of manganese. However, since it can be greatly altered and even discharged by heat, the color was believed by some authorities to be from an organic source. Ferric thiocyanate has been suggested, and sulfur was said to have been detected in the mineral.

Synthetic amethyst

Synthetic amethyst is produced by gamma ray, X-ray or electron beam irradiation of clear quartz which has been first doped with ferric impurities. On exposure to heat, the irradiation effects can be partially cancelled and amethyst generally becomes yellow or even green, and much of the citrine, cairngorm, or yellow quartz of jewelry is said to be merely “burnt amethyst”.

Synthetic amethyst is made to imitate the best quality amethyst. Its chemical and physical properties are so similar to that of natural amethyst that it can not be differentiated with absolute certainty without advanced gemnological testing . There is one test based on “Brazil law twinning”  which can be used to identify synthetic amethyst rather easily. It is possible to synthesize twinned amethyst, but this type is not available in large quantities in the market. Amethyst was considered to be a strong antidote against drunkenness, which is why wine goblets were often carved from it. In his poem “L’Amethyste, ou les Amours de Bacchus et d’Amethyste”, the French poet Remy Belleau  invented a myth in which Bacchus, the god of intoxication, of wine, and grapes was pursuing a maiden named Amethyste, who refused his affections. Amethyste prayed to the gods to remain chaste, a prayer which the chaste goddess Diana answered, transforming her into a white stone. Humbled by Amethyste’s desire to remain chaste, Bacchus poured wine over the stone as an offering, dyeing the crystals purple.

Variations of the story include that Dionysus had been insulted by a mortal and swore to slay the next mortal who crossed his path, creating fierce tigers to carry out his wrath. The mortal turned out to be a beautiful young woman, Amethystos, who was on her way to pay tribute to Artemis. Her life was spared by Artemis, who transformed the maiden into a statue of pure crystalline quartz to protect her from the brutal claws. Dionysus wept tears of wine in remorse for his action at the sight of the beautiful statue. The god’s tears then stained the quartz purple.

This myth and its variations are not found in classical sources. Although the titan Rhea does present Dionysus with an amethyst stone to preserve the wine-drinker’s sanity in historical text.

Other cultural associations

Tibetans consider amethyst sacred to the Buddha and make prayer beads from it. Amethyst is considered the birthstone of February. In the Middle Ages, it was considered a symbol of royalty and used to decorate English regalia.

Value

Up until the 18th century, amethyst was included in the cardinal, or most valuable, gemstones . However, since the discovery of extensive deposits in locations such as Brazil, it has lost most of its value.

Collectors look for depth of color, possibly with red flashes if cut conventionally. As amethyst is readily available in large structures the value of the gem is not primarily defined by carat weight; this is different to most gemstones where the carat weight exponentially increases the value of the stone. The biggest factor in the value of amethyst is the color displayed.

The highest grade amethyst  is exceptionally rare and therefore, when one is found, its value is dependent on the demand of collectors. It is, however, still orders of magnitude lower than the highest grade sapphires or rubies .

See also

Ametrine

Prasiolite

List of minerals

Specimen Ridge

References

Attribution

External links

 

 

Bibliography:

Wikipedia

 

Posted on

Quartz varieties and clear, rose and amethyst pointers

 

Varieties

Pure quartz, traditionally called rock crystal or clear quartz, is colorless and transparent or translucent, and has often been used for hardstone carvings, such as the Lothair Crystal. Common colored varieties include citrine, rose quartz, amethyst, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and others.

The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline  and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties . The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque, while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz, and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz, or mixed rocks including quartz, often including contrasting bands or patterns of color, are agate, carnelian or sard, onyx, heliotrope, and jasper.

Amethyst

Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. The world’s largest deposits of amethysts can be found in Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Russia, France, Namibia and Morocco. Sometimes amethyst and citrine are found growing in the same crystal. It is then referred to as ametrine. An amethyst is formed when there is iron in the area where it was formed.

Citrine

Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown due to ferric impurities. Natural citrines are rare; most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. However, a heat-treated amethyst will have small lines in the crystal, as opposed to a natural citrine’s cloudy or smokey appearance. It is nearly impossible to differentiate between cut citrine and yellow topaz visually, but they differ in hardness. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine, with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The name is derived from the Latin word citrina which means “yellow” and is also the origin of the word “citron”. Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal, which is then referred to as ametrine. Citrine has been referred to as the “merchant’s stone” or “money stone”, due to a superstition that it would bring prosperity.

Milky quartz

Milk quartz or milky quartz is the most common variety of crystalline quartz. The white color is caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas, liquid, or both, trapped during crystal formation, making it of little value for optical and quality gemstone applications.

Rose quartz

Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium, iron, or manganese, in the massive material. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possibly dumortierite within the massive quartz.

Additionally, there is a rare type of pink quartz  with color that is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford, Maine, USA and in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Smoky quartz

Smoky quartz is a gray, translucent version of quartz. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. Some can also be black.

Vermarine

Vermarine, also known as prasiolite, is a variety of quartz that is green in color. Since 1950, almost all natural vermarine has come from a small Brazilian mine, but it is also seen in Lower Silesia in Poland. Naturally occurring vermarine is also found in the Thunder Bay area of Canada. It is a rare stone in nature, most green quartz is heat-treated amethyst.

Synthetic and artificial treatments

Not all varieties of quartz are naturally occurring. Some clear quartz crystals can be treated using heat or gamma-irradiation to induce color where it would not otherwise have occurred naturally. Susceptibility to such treatments depends on the location from which the quartz was mined. Prasiolite, an olive colored material, is produced by heat treatment; natural prasiolite has also been observed in Lower Silesia in Poland. Although citrine occurs naturally, the majority is the result of heat-treated amethyst. Carnelian is widely heat-treated to deepen its color.

Because natural quartz is often twinned, synthetic quartz is produced for use in industry. Large, flawless, single crystals are synthesized in an autoclave via the hydrothermal process; emeralds are also synthesized in this fashion.

Like other crystals, quartz may be coated with metal vapors to give it an attractive sheen.

Occurrence

Quartz is a defining constituent of granite and other felsic igneous rocks. It is very common in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and shale and is also present in variable amounts as an accessory mineral in most carbonate rocks. It is a common constituent of schist, gneiss, quartzite and other metamorphic rocks. Quartz has the lowest potential for weathering in the Goldich dissolution series and consequently it is very common as a residual mineral in stream sediments and residual soils.

While the majority of quartz crystallizes from molten magma, much quartz also chemically precipitates from hot hydrothermal veins as gangue, sometimes with ore minerals like gold, silver and copper. Large crystals of quartz are found in magmatic pegmatites. Well-formed crystals may reach several meters in length and weigh hundreds of kilograms.

Naturally occurring quartz crystals of extremely high purity, necessary for the crucibles and other equipment used for growing silicon wafers in the semiconductor industry, are expensive and rare. A major mining location for high purity quartz is the Spruce Pine Gem Mine in Spruce Pine, North Carolina, United States.

The largest documented single crystal of quartz was found near Itapore, Goiaz, Brazil; it measured approximately 6.1×1.5×1.5 m and weighed more than 44 tonnes.

Related silica minerals

Tridymite and cristobalite are high-temperature polymorphs of SiO2 that occur in high-silica volcanic rocks. Coesite is a denser polymorph of SiO2 found in some meteorite impact sites and in metamorphic rocks formed at pressures greater than those typical of the Earth’s crust. Stishovite is a yet denser and higher-pressure polymorph of SiO2 found in some meteorite impact sites. Lechatelierite is an amorphous silica glass SiO2 which is formed by lightning strikes in quartz sand.

History

The word “quartz” comes from the German, which is of Slavic origin . Other sources attribute the word’s origin to the Saxon word Querkluftertz, meaning cross-vein ore.

Quartz is the most common material identified as the mystical substance maban in Australian Aboriginal mythology. It is found regularly in passage tomb cemeteries in Europe in a burial context, such as Newgrange or Carrowmore in Ireland. The Irish word for quartz is grianchloch, which means ‘sunstone’. Quartz was also used in Prehistoric Ireland, as well as many other countries, for stone tools; both vein quartz and rock crystal were knapped as part of the lithic technology of the prehistoric peoples.

While jade has been since earliest times the most prized semi-precious stone for carving in East Asia and Pre-Columbian America, in Europe and the Middle East the different varieties of quartz were the most commonly used for the various types of jewelry and hardstone carving, including engraved gems and cameo gems, rock crystal vases, and extravagant vessels. The tradition continued to produce objects that were very highly valued until the mid-19th century, when it largely fell from fashion except in jewelry. Cameo technique exploits the bands of color in onyx and other varieties.

Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder believed quartz to be water ice, permanently frozen after great lengths of time.  He supported this idea by saying that quartz is found near glaciers in the Alps, but not on volcanic mountains, and that large quartz crystals were fashioned into spheres to cool the hands. This idea persisted until at least the 17th century. He also knew of the ability of quartz to split light into a spectrum.

In the 17th century, Nicolas Steno’s study of quartz paved the way for modern crystallography. He discovered that regardless of a quartz crystal’s size or shape, its long prism faces always joined at a perfect 60° angle.

Quartz’s piezoelectric properties were discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. The quartz oscillator or resonator was first developed by Walter Guyton Cady in 1921. George Washington Pierce designed and patented quartz crystal oscillators in 1923. Warren Marrison created the first quartz oscillator clock based on the work of Cady and Pierce in 1927.

Efforts to synthesize quartz began in the mid nineteenth century as scientists attempted to create minerals under laboratory conditions that mimicked the conditions in which the minerals formed in nature: German geologist Karl Emil von Schafhäutl  was the first person to synthesize quartz when in 1845 he created microscopic quartz crystals in a pressure cooker. However, the quality and size of the crystals that were produced by these early efforts were poor. By the 1930s, the electronics industry had become dependent on quartz crystals. The only source of suitable crystals was Brazil; however, World War II disrupted the supplies from Brazil, so nations attempted to synthesize quartz on a commercial scale. German mineralogist Richard Nacken  achieved some success during the 1930s and 1940s. After the war, many laboratories attempted to grow large quartz crystals. In the United States, the U.S. Army Signal Corps contracted with Bell Laboratories and with the Brush Development Company of Cleveland, Ohio to synthesize crystals following Nacken’s lead.  By 1948, Brush Development had grown crystals that were 1.5 inches  in diameter, the largest to date. By the 1950s, hydrothermal synthesis techniques were producing synthetic quartz crystals on an industrial scale, and today virtually all the quartz crystal used in the modern electronics industry is synthetic.

Piezoelectricity

Quartz crystals have piezoelectric properties; they develop an electric potential upon the application of mechanical stress. An early use of this property of quartz crystals was in phonograph pickups. One of the most common piezoelectric uses of quartz today is as a crystal oscillator. The quartz clock is a familiar device using the mineral. The resonant frequency of a quartz crystal oscillator is changed by mechanically loading it, and this principle is used for very accurate measurements of very small mass changes in the quartz crystal microbalance and in thin-film thickness monitors.

See also

Dallasite

Fused quartz

List of minerals

Shocked quartz

Quartz reef mining

References

External links

 

Quartz gemstones

 

Bibliography:

Wikipedia

 

Posted on

Orgonite – balance your energy! All models and sizes.

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-orgonite-balance-energy-sleep-health-natural therapy

Orgonites are made out of several materials, mineral and resin that produce a different energy potential on each side of the orgonite -necklace or loose orgonite-.

This results in balancing the body energy when touching both sides, and when used enough it helps align the chakras, improves sleep, blocks EM energy, and help you relax and improve the general health and state of mind.

Choose and have your own today! Self therapy, natural, anti stress, and could not be easier.

Stay healthy, stay happy!

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-orgonite-balance-energy-sleep-health-natural therapy

crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amulet-reiki-chakras-point-pendulum-necklace-orgonite-balance-energy-sleep-health-natural therapy

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-orgonite-balance-energy-sleep-health-natural therapy

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-orgonite-balance-energy-sleep-health-natural therapy-2

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-orgonite-balance-energy-sleep-health-natural therapy

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-orgonite-balance-energy-sleep-health-natural therapy

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

Posted on

Tibetan singing bowls available for dropshipping worldwide!

singing-tibetan-bowls-music-meditation-ohm-mantra-chakra-health-therapy

Singing bowls or tibetan bowls are originally from Tibet,

were created centuries ago for mediation and health, as their vibrations help relax and align the chakras as well as balance the energies.

They are made by hand from a special mixture of metals that give every bowl a different personality and an unique sound that lets every person choose their favourite one. One should learn how to make the Tibetan bowl sing, then relax and choose the one that aligns best with their inner energy.

singing-tibetan-bowls-music-meditation-ohm-mantra-chakra-health-therapy

 

Now the tibetan bowls to reach your zen state and a higher state of energy and counsciousness

Are available to order NOW, contact us (postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk) for more information. Order now and receive them by next week!

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

Posted on

Natural crystal spheres: quartz, obsidian, agate, citrine, druzy spheres…

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-sphere-decoration-stone-shine-quartz-black-obsidian

Now you can have the natural sphere you always wanted. Loved and wanted by everyone, for decoration, healing or as a unique gift, these spheres are carved by hand directly in natural stone to deliver the best quality to your door.

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-sphere-decoration-stone

 london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-sphere-decoration-stone-shine-quartz

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-sphere-decoration-stone-shine-quartz-black-obsidian

  london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-sphere-decoration-stone-shine-quartz-white

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-sphere-decoration-stone-shine

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-sphere-decoration-stone-shine-quartz-white-lot

????????????????????????????????????

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

Posted on

Chakra healing minerals – quartz, rose quartz and obsidian points

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-white-2

Now you can choose among our variety of natural stones and minerals and find the perfect reiki point for you, a pendulum for diagnosis, mercaba for meditation or any other natural mineral.

Discover natural treatments for a healthier life and enjoy them by next week!

Special discounts for groups and classes.

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-obsidian london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirits-1 london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirits-2 london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirits-3 london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-rose-quartz-pointer london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-varied-simple-chakras london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-amethyst-purple london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-pink-rose london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-white london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-white-2

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

Posted on

Natural stone and mineral pointers, pendulums, amulets, energy channels for meditation, mercaba…

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirits

Find here all the items you need for canalizing energies, aligning chakras, meditation, reiki, pointers, pendulums, orgonites and more!

If you want a specific product just contact us and we will find it for you as soon as we can.

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-white-merkaba-pointer london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-pink-rose london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-white-2 london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-amethyst-purple london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-white-pointer-pure-white quartz-pyramid london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirits london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-pink-pointer-rose quartz-pyramid london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-obsidian-black-pyramid london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-obsidian london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit

 

Natural shapes, faceted, pendants, beads, necklaces with or without cord, rings, pendulums…
Amethyst, quartz, obsidian, citrine, tiger eye, moonstone, labradorite, apatite, coral, cat’s eye, malachite, agate, geodes, melanite, alexandrite, moonstone, amazonite, turquoise, rose quartz, opal, moss opal, ammolite, topaz, onyx, aquamarine, aventurine, beryl, pearl, bloodstone, peridot, calcite, carnelian, pyrite, rhodochrosite, chalcedony, tourmaline, rutile quartz, fluorite, hematite, sunstone, howlite, verdite, lapislazuli, mother of pearl…

Experienced dropshippers. Order now and get your order by next week.

From £1 !!! Up to 40% discount for orders over £150. Order now!

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

Posted on

Amethyst, quartz, obsidian, citrine, tiger eye…

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-heart-assorted-necklace

Hundreds of natural stones and minerals for you to choose. Natural shapes, faceted, pendants, beads, necklaces with or without cord, rings, pendulums…
Amethyst, quartz, obsidian, citrine, tiger eye, moonstone, labradorite, apatite, coral, cat’s eye, malachite, agate, geodes, melanite, alexandrite, moonstone, amazonite, turquoise, rose quartz, opal, moss opal, ammolite, topaz, onyx, aquamarine, aventurine, beryl, pearl, bloodstone, peridot, calcite, carnelian, pyrite, rhodochrosite, chalcedony, tourmaline, rutile quartz, fluorite, hematite, sunstone, howlite, verdite, lapislazuli, mother of pearl…

Choose your styles now and order, get them by next week!

From £1 each! Choose and order now!

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk

*all models depend on availability. The arrival or an order depends on the date it was placed and confirmed, and availability of the products requested. In case of having to wait more for some of the products, you get the other ones faster so you don’t have to wait to receive the full order if the product is in stock. (Conditions apply).

london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-beads-necklace-1 london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-heart-assorted-necklace london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-obsidian london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-obsidian-black-pyramid london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-pink-pointer-rose quartz-pyramid london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirits london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-necklace-merkaba-mercaba-equilibrium-spirit-white-pointer-pure-white quartz-pyramid london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-amethyst-purple london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-pink-rose london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-white-2 london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-amethyst-point-pendulum-quartz-white-merkaba-pointer london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-tigers eye-tiger-stone-point-heart-necklace-1 london-crystal-buy-wholesale-quartz-amethyst-amulet-reiki-chakras-tigers eye-tiger-stone-point-pendulum-necklace-1

http://london-buy-crystal.co.uk/

postmaster@london-buy-crystal.co.uk