Esoteric crystals for cleansing spaces and energies

One of the uses for crystals would be for cleansing purposes. Crystals are the absorbers of negative energy when used in correct combinations. These ideas are out there, but have not congealed into the over-all picture of what can be accomplished with the crystals. Certain combinations of crystals, tuned to their sharpest pitch by faceting, can not only clean the air around homes but also can cleanse the aura of humans. This will enable the process of enlightenment to move forward at a much faster pace.

This is how healing that is accomplished now is being done – by cleansing the aura around the chakra of the diseased or injured part of the body. This could become much more effective if scientifically studied as to the correct combinations of crystals, similar to the correct combinations of herbs for healing. The process will be the same in all kingdoms, the right combination. It is progressed further in the Botanical Kingdom than it is in the Geological Kingdom. The Geological Kingdom needs to be progressed more because this should be the first stage of healing for any problem – physical, emotional, mental or spiritual. Remember, the correct combination of crystal power will cleanse whatever chakra is connected to the part of the body in which lies the problem.

As far as using the energy coming from crystals for healing, healers must understand the purpose of the energies coming from different kinds of crystals. If the energy from them is not properly balanced, it could cause imbalance in an entity, first in his emotional body, then it would affect his mental body and finally even the tough human form would find itself deteriorating in the presence of too much or misused and misdirected energy from unbalanced crystals.

Crystals should not be used indiscriminately. If this is done they can, and will, do more harm than good. When they go past the point of balance and create a negative energy field is when the danger enters. There is a way to measure energy levels (power) and also types of energy. Those from certain crystals are more powerful than others.

The cut and faceting of crystals is an area that needs to have more research and experimentation, because the way a crystal is cut is the secret to its energy field. There is truly much to be learned, and needs to be learned, in this field, not only to keep others from harming their own energy field, but also to learn how to use the energy for healing.

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The power of crystals – Judy Hall text

Shamanic Crystals Judy Hall Extracted from The Crystal Bible, New Crystals and Healing Stones and The Crystal Encyclopedia (l50 stones not in the Crystal Bible) Most shamanic crystals are high vibration stones that bring about multidimensional healing but these only work if your own vibrations are in harmony with the stone. If a crystal does not appear to work for you, hold it and gently concentrate on your palm. You may feel a tingle and your body will shift slightly as it attunes to the crystal. If so, persevere, sitting for ten minutes a day until the crystal begins to work. If not, choose another crystal. A high vibration crystal may bring about a strong reaction or healing challenge. If this occurs, remove the crystal immediately and hold a Green Phantom or Smoky Quartz point down towards your feet to facilitate the release of energy moving easily out of your body. Wait a day or two before using the high vibration crystal again. Brandenberg Chakra: all but especially the soma chakra – above the third eye at the hairline, and the past life chakras – behind the ears on the bony ridge. All Brandenbergs whether clear, smoky or amethyst, carry the vibration of each colour. A useful aid to multi-dimensional spiritual work, ‘inner windows’ or phantoms assist in looking within or traversing the spiritual planes and gently break old patterns and ties. This high-vibration crystal is an indispensable aid for healing and journeying, and for exploring the pure, eternal blueprint that lies behind existence. It returns a body to that purity of vibration and intention that came before any imprinting from earthly incarnations. Emanating infinite compassion to all of creation, Brandenberg brings about deep soul healing and forgiveness. This stone speeds recovery from illness or accident and is excellent for house clearing. A Smoky Brandenberg is the finest tool available for removing implants, attachments, spirit possession or mental influence and this is the stone par excellence for transformation or transition. 2 Other shamanic stones: Actinolite Chakra: heart, solar plexus, third eye Actinolite is an excellent stone for psychic shielding. Expanding the aura and crystallising its edges, this stone connects you to higher awareness and brings body, mind, psyche and spirit into balance. An effective aid to visualisation and imagery. Actinolite assists the body to adjust to changes or traumas. Aegirine Chakra: higher heart (thymus) An excellent crystal for generating and focussing energy beams for use in healing a person or environment, Aegerine removes emotional energy blockages and enhances positive vibrations. Extremely helpful in psychic attack or negative thinking, it repairs the aura after attachments have been removed and turns negative thoughts positive. This stone helps you see the bigger picture and Aegirine heals relationship problems and overcomes the grief of separation. Encouraging sincerity in all that you do, Aegirine empowers the quest for your true self and the ability to do what is needed from the heart. This stone encourages following your own truth without conforming to the ideas or ideals of others, or to group pressure, and focuses your goals wisely. Boosting the body’s self-healing systems, it enhances the healing energy of other crystals. Agrellite Chakra: third eye and higher crown. Agrellite surfaces things – fast. It shows where you have been attempting to control others and supports you in allowing them independence and self-respect. Bringing to your attention matters that you have repressed and buried deep within your psyche, and which are blocking your soul growth, it also helps you to face your own inner saboteur and to access untapped potential. This stone detects blockages within the physical or aura, to which it has a distinctive energetic response, although other crystals may be required to heal the condition 3 Ajoite Chakra: third eye, crown, links heart and throat An extremely high vibration and rare stone, Ajoite wraps the soul in universal love. If your vibrations are in harmony with this stone it brings about a profound spiritual revelation and serenity. A purifier for the emotional body and instilling infinite peace, Ajoite creates emotional and environmental calm, gently drawing out and transmuting toxic emotions and old grief. Worn over the thymus, it dissipates stress from the physical body and, harmonising the etheric blueprint with the physical body, attunes to a state of perfect health. Ajoite draws karmic wounds or implants out of the body no matter at what level or from which timeframe they originate, and gently heals the resulting space with unconditional love, reframing cellular memory. Ajoite with Shattuckite Chakra: higher heart or third eye An excellent energy conduit, this combination is one of the most powerful protections against electromagnetic smog and psychic attack. Creating a protective bubble around the aura that keeps you safe no matter where you may be, it enables you to remain open spiritually. In times of stress, wearing this stone allows you to experience profound peace and to remain centred in yourself. Karmically, Ajoite with Shattuckite assists the process of atonement, reconciliation and reparation, releasing the need for such acts where these have become a blockage to spiritual progress especially if a subtle carryover of past life mortification practises. It teaches the difference between atonement and at-onement and opens the way for the karma of grace to operate. Amblygonite Chakra: solar plexus, higher crown, opens and aligns all A useful stone for gently releasing emotional hooks from the solar plexus, Amblygonite assists in ending relationships without angry consequences. It can be used to grid areas of discordance or public disorder, bringing peace and tranquillity, especially where young people are involved. In healing, Amblygonite activates the electrical systems of the body and can be taped over the thymus to protect against computer emanations in those who are sensitive. 4 Amethyst Elestial Chakras: higher crown and upwards A ‘crystal of the angels’, an Amethyst Elestial is a very powerful healing stone. It works on the higher chakras, stimulates the pineal gland, and opens a connection to interplanetary beings, guides and helpers. Amethyst Elestial shows you the relevance and effects of your past life experiences on your present situation and removes resultant blockages. Dispersing negative energy from an alien or other source, it provides reassurance and calm. It is the perfect Elestial to support brain healing and to bring about multidimensional and cellular memory healing. Large Amethyst Elestials can be gridded around healing room to powerfully enhance the energies and provide a safe space in which to work. Amethyst Herkimer Chakra: higher heart and higher crown, third eye Herkimers are strongly energetic stones that facilitate conscious attunement to the highest spiritual dimensions. Fine-tuning the third eye, Amethyst Herkimer is a powerful metaphysical tool that facilitates soul retrieval from any lifetime, inducing deep core soul healing, and integrating all the disparate parts of the self. Freeing the incarnated soul of earthly burdens and aligning with other soul dimensions to cohere the soul as a vehicle for spirit, Amethyst Herkimers can bring about profound spiritual evolution. As with all Herkimers, this stone creates a powerful soul shield when journeying or meditating, and restores and purifies energy after undertaking any form of spiritual or healing work. It is perfect for programming to attract your twinflame and soul companions. Amethyst Spirit Quartz Chakra: Higher Crown Compassionate Amethyst Spirit Quartz facilitates transition to other states of being and accessing higher consciousness. At the higher crown chakras it brings about transmutation of prior misuses of spiritual power, facilitating multidimensional healing including soul parts not in incarnation. It can be programmed to assist from afar a soul who is facing death – and offers immense support and comfort throughout a terminal illness. Amethyst Spirit Quartz makes an excellent carrier for flower essences to gently dissolve karma, attitudes and emotions that would be detrimental if taken into the next world. An effective tool for spirit 5 releasement, it encourages a trapped soul to move towards the light, attracting guides for the journey. Holding the stone enables a practitioner to safely journey wherever may be necessary to release the soul and to ascertain whether there is anything that the soul needs completing before it moves on. Amethyst Phantom Quartz Chakra: past life, crown Meditating with Amethyst Phantom facilitates entry into the pre-birth state, accessing the soul plan for the present lifetime, evaluating progress made with spiritual lessons for the current incarnation, and renegotiates these if no longer appropriate. Facilitating travelling to a high vibration, Amethyst Phantom remove implants that operate multi- dimensionally, healing the etheric or spiritual blueprint and reprogramming cellular memory so that the physical body can raise its vibrations. It transports you back into lives where you were priest or priestess to access your spiritual wisdom. Ametrine Chakra: all Ametrine is particularly useful in long standing illness as it brings insight into causes of dis-ease. Ametrine connects the physical realm with higher consciousness. This stone facilitates and protects during astral travel and relieves psychic attack. Ammolite Chakra: third eye and soma A powerful earth healing stone, Ammolite contains the wisdom of the ancients and was worn on the forehead for consciousness activation, metaphysical powers and interdimensional exploration. It is particularly effective when placed on the soma chakra. Representing coming full circle, Ammolite takes you into your centre and into completion. Activating your own personal empowerment, it converts negative energy into a gently flowing positive spiral. Ammolite relieves birth trauma affecting the cranio-sacral flow and is helpful in all cranio-sacral work. A powerful karmic cleanser, it releases mental obsessions. 6 Andean Blue Opal Chakra: throat, heart, higher heart (thymus), third eye Andean Blue Opal is particularly useful for healing old emotional wounds, from this life or another. An excellent journeying stone, Andean Opal creates a relaxed, receptive state and can induce mild hypnotic trance, enhancing divination. Increasing awareness of the need for healing the earth, this is a useful tool for facilitating that healing and for those who manifest and transmute the changing vibration through their own physical or subtle body. Angelite Chakra: Third eye Angelite is one of the ‘stones of awareness’ for the new age. As its name suggests, it facilitates conscious contact with the angelic realm. It enhances telepathic communication and enables out of body journeys to take place whilst still in contact with everyday reality. Angelite is a powerful stone for healers as it deepens attunement and heightens perception. It also provides protection for the environment or the body, especially when taken as an elixir. Annabergite Chakra: third eye, soma Annabergte brings with it the knowledge that everything is perfect exactly as it is, showing you the harmony of your highest self and opening all possibilities especially for healing. Placed on the third eye, this mystical stone is excellent for enhancing visualisation and intuition, and for bringing contact with wise masters of the universe. Placed on the soma chakra, it enables you to know who you truly are and to reflect this out to the world. Aligning the aura and strengthening the biomagnetic energies, Annabergite enhances the flow of energy in the physical meridians and harmonizes these with the earth’s meridian grid, facilitating multidimensional cellular healing. Apple Aura Quartz Chakra: Spleen Apple Aura Quartz is an excellent protector for the spleen when worn over the base of the sternum, or taped over the spleen chakra, as it cuts multidimensional energy drains and overcomes the psychic vampirism created when someone draws 7 on your energies without permission. It can also assist in cutting ties with previous partners or mentors who retain a powerful mental or emotional hold. Astrophyllite Chakra: higher crown (l4th) Astrophyllite is an excellent stone for promoting out of body experiences, acting as a guide and protector in other realms, but it also assists in standing outside oneself for an objective view. This stone introduces you to your full potential encouraging you to recognise that you have no limits. Astrophyllite activates your dreams and enables you to ‘dream true’ to see your soul path. Said to increase the sensitivity of touch and to improve the faculty of perception, Astrophyllite is helpful for those undergoing training in massage or acupressure, especially as it makes you more sensitive to other people’s unspoken needs. Atacamite Chakra: third eye Atacamite forcefully opens the third eye, creating powerful visual images and a strong spiritual connection. Despite its forcefulness, it is a very safe crystal to use to stimulate spiritual vision and aid visualisation. It is a stone of great clarity. Used in meditation, it takes the soul safely to the highest possible levels. Atacamite restores lost spiritual trust and disconnection, and promotes a connection to higher guidance. It is a useful stone to hold when journeying out of the body, especially to the higher spiritual spheres. Atlantasite Chakra: clears all, especially higher crown, crown, soma and heart Atlantasite is said to access past lives in Atlantis and to support in completing projects set in motion at that time. It aids those who misused their spiritual powers at that, or any other, time and stimulates spiritual evolution. It brings enormous peace into the environment and, buried in the earth, undertakes earth clearing and energy restructuring in a place where there has been death and destruction. This stone is helpful for gently encouraging children to modify inappropriate behaviour. 8 Avalonite (Drusy Blue Chalcedony) Chakras: links sacral and heart Avalonite accesses the collective unconscious and mythical realms where fairy tales and legend offer deep wisdom, acting as translator and facilitator for creatively reworking the myths in your life. Contacting fairies, elves and devas, it links into ancient magic. Use Avalonite to harmonize the emotional, mental and spiritual wisdom at the centre of your being. Following the contours enhancing visualisation, opening psychic awareness, and telepathy between soul partners. If you wish to contact your wise woman or priestess incarnations, the depths of Avalonite gently transport you into your past. Enhancing practical wisdom and presence of mind, especially when faced with new situations, this stone is perfect for those who fear to love, or who fear failure, as it opens the heart and allows you to discover the perfection of your true self and recognise that you are never alone. Avalonite absorbs negative energy and transmutes it to prevent onward transmission but requires regular cleansing and re-charging. Beneficial for: sensitivity to weather or pressure changes Azurite Chakra: third eye, crown Azurite guides psychic and intuitive development. It urges the soul towards enlightenment. It cleanses and stimulates the third eye and attunes to spiritual guidance. This crystal enables journeys out of the body to take place easily and safely. It raises consciousness to a higher level and gives greater control over spiritual unfoldment. It facilitates entering a meditative and channelling state. Azurite is a powerful healing stone, facilitating psychosomatic understanding of the effect of the mind and emotions on the body. Barite Chakra: heart, throat Reputedly used by Native Americans to journey from the physical to the spiritual worlds, Barite stimulates dreaming and dream recall. If anonymity and stealth are required for ritual working, Barite confers this. This stone assists in communicating your intuitive vision and heightens ability to organise and express your thoughts. A powerful transformer, it may bring about a catharsis in which old 9 emotional patterns, hatreds and fears are thrown off – other crystals may be required to restore equilibrium. Black Kyanite Chakras: aligns and grounds all A potent tool for fully incarnating into earth life and for moving into the between-life state to access the current lifeplan, and other lives if necessary, Black Kyanite can view the karma you are currently creating by showing in a future life results of choices made now, and can assist in foreseeing the outcome of a plan. A particularly powerful stone for psychological and auric cleansing that never needs cleaning, used like a wand, the striations rapidly move negativity out of the subtle bodies, aligning and grounding the chakras, and draw dis-ease and stagnant energy from the physical body replenishing it with positive energy and reprogrammed cellular memory. With strong links to the earth, Black Kyanite supports environmentalism and connects with those who are assisting the evolution of the planet. It is said to keep cells connected to the overall divine blueprint to maintain health. Black Calcite Chakra: past life (behind the ears) Black Calcite is a record keeper stone for regression and regaining memories so that the past can be released. It returns the soul to the body after trauma or stress, alleviates black depression, and is a useful companion during a dark night of the soul. Black Obsidian Chakra: past life, earth and base Black Obsidian grounds the soul and spiritual forces into the physical plane, bringing them under the direction of the conscious will and making it possible to manifest spiritual energies on earth. Black Obsidian forces facing up to one’s true self, taking you deep into the subconscious mind in the process. It brings imbalances and shadow qualities to the surface for release, highlighting hidden factors. It magnifies all negative energies so that they can be fully experienced and then released. This healing effect goes back into past lives, and can work on the ancestral 10 and family line. Black Obsidian composts the past to make fertile energy for growth of the soul. It reverses previous misuse of power and addresses power issues on all levels, teaching that to be empowered is not to wield personal power but rather to channel power for the good of all. Black Obsidian is protective, it repels negativity and disperses unloving thoughts. It facilitates the release of old loves and provides support during change. Used in shamanic ceremonies to remove physical disorders, Black Obsidian also has the gift of prophesy. In healing, a Black Obsidian placed on the navel grounds spiritual energy into the body. Held briefly above the third eye it breaks through mental barriers and dissolves mental conditioning. Used with care, it can draw together scattered energy and promote emotional release. Blue Aragonite Chakra: third eye, throat, heart A powerful energy conduit, it both heightens and grounds spiritual communication and aligns all the subtle bodes with the physical. It is a powerful earth and soul healer and can be gridded around houses to keep the environment stable and harmonious. Blue Aragonite is excellent for inner child work and for manifesting your soul plan for the present life. Blue Jasper Chakra: throat Blue Jasper connects you to the spiritual world. It stimulates the throat chakra, balances yin-yang energy, and stablizes the aura. Blue Phantom Quartz Chakra: Throat Number: 77 Blue Quartz Phantom is excellent for enhancing telepathic communication between people on the earth, or between earth and the spiritual realms, assisting you to traverse different dimensions and bring back knowledge from those realms. 11 Blue Obsidian Chakra: third eye, throat Blue Obsidian aids astral travel, facilitates divination, and enhances telepathy. It activates the throat chakra and supports communication skills. In healing, Blue Obsidian opens the aura to receive healing energy. Boji Stones Boji Stones are one of the most effective grounding and protection stones. They gently but firmly return you to earth and into your body, grounding you in the present moment, especially after work in other spiritual realities. They are extremely useful for people who find it difficult to have more than a toehold in incarnation. Boji Stones can also help you to explore the shamanic otherworlds. Bornite Chakra: third eye, crown, actives and synthesises all Fostering concern about all beings on the planet, opening psychic abilities and enhancing inner knowing, Bornite teaches trust in the intuitive process. Assisting with visualisation and creating your own reality, Bornite can be programmed to send or receive healing from a distance – in which case it should be carried or worn over the thymus (preferably set in silver). Bornite is an excellent tool during any kind of rebirthing work or traumatic situation. Integrating mind, body, emotions and soul, it filters out what is no longer relevant. An excellent protection against negativity, which it transmutes, Bornite assists in identifying the source of detrimental thoughts so that they can be eliminated. Bornite on Silver Chakra: third eye Bornite on Silver reinforces the silver cord that connects the astral body the physical, ensuring safe return whenever and wherever you journey. It is particularly useful for accessing and reframing the cause of third eye blockages especially where these have been deliberately proscribed in the past and facilitates cellular memory reprogramming. Botswana and Grey-banded Agate Chakra: crown, soma, third eye 12 Placed on the third eye, Banded Agate quickly cuts mental cords to a guru, partner or parent who capitalizes on a past connection to retain manipulative control in the present. It is excellent for replenishing energy lost in such situations as it draws on a higher life force and protects the aura. This is an excellent healer for reprogramming cellular memory especially where there has been mortification of the flesh, emotions or spirit. Gridded around a house, it prevents out of body visitations from another soul. Its bands take you travelling, into another reality, different streams of consciousness, or other lives and is extremely effective for multidimensional healing and soul work. Banded Agate stimulates the crown chakra, bringing celestial and earth energy into the auric field and harmonising the physical body with the subtle bodies. Bronzite Chakra: activates and synthesises all Bronzite is a protective, grounding crystal that is helpful in discordant situations where you feel powerless and in the grip of events beyond your control, it allows you simply to ‘be’, entering a dynamic state of non-action, non-doing. Bronzite is marketed as being particularly effective against curses. However, traditionally iron-bearing crystals, such as Bronzite, return ill-wishing, curses or spells back to the source magnified three times over. This perpetuates the curse as it bounces backwards and forwards becoming stronger each time unless intercepted so you need to put in place something to absorb the curse or use Black Tourmaline. Bustamite Chakra: base and sacral, heart and third eye, aligns all. A powerful energy worker, Bustamite provides deep connection to the earth and facilitates earth healing, realigning the meridians of the earth’s etheric body and is an excellent stone for gridding out a safe space in which to carry out ritual work, initiation or meditation. Realigning the energy meridians of the physical and subtle bodies, at the emotional level it removes old pain harmonising the emotional energy system and healing cellular memory. Stimulating conscious dreaming and intuition, Bustamite enhances channelling and accesses the angelic realms. Cacoxenite Chakra: third eye, crown 13 One of the stones of ascension, Cacoxenite heightens spiritual awareness and assists planetary alignments to stimulate the vibratory evolution of earth. Used in meditation or past life regression, Cacoxenite takes you to the core soul memories into which insight is essential for present day spiritual evolution to occur. This crystal heightens the power of full or new moon rituals. Candle Quartz Chakra: all Said to be a light bringer for the planet and those who have incarnated to assist earth and those upon it shift vibration, Candle Quartz highlights soul purpose and focuses your life path, assisting in putting ancient knowledge into practice and bringing your guardian angel closer. Candle Quartz can be programmed to attract spiritual abundance or to bring light into your home. If you find physical incarnation uncomfortable, Candle Quartz makes you feel good about your body. Candle Quartz is helpful in understanding how the physical body can be damaged by emotional or mental distress and reprograms cellular memory. Instilling clarity, it assists in looking within to find your truth and can be used as a scrying stone for personal illumination. Cavansite Chakra: Third eye, throat, past life Encouraging conscious astral journeying, Cavansite facilitates past life exploration, reframing trauma at source so that it does not manifest in the present. Enhancing cellular healing, Cavansite shields a healer or past life therapist during a session. Safeguarding your home or ca Celestobarite Chakra: solar plexus, base and crown Celestobarite is a shamanic oracle that shows you both sides of the coin, elucidating issues that are not clear, but leaving you to decide what to believe. This stone has a ‘joker’, coyote, energy that presents the dark side in a joyful way and reminds us that nothing stays the same. Its Janus face looks to past, present and future and explores the multidimensional layers of being. With strong shielding energy, this is an excellent journeying stone that holds you suspended between the 14 base and crown chakras and takes you safely into the shamanic middle world that lies parallel to the everyday world in which reside soul aspects and entities. Celestobarite cuts through edges and takes you to the edge and beyond. Cerussite Cerussite is an excellent grounding stone that assists in feeling comfortable within the environment. It is extremely useful for people who feel that the earth is not their natural home as it ameliorates ‘homesickness’ and makes the soul feel at home wherever it finds itself. Cerussite may form as a star shaped crystal or as a record keeper. These precious stones attune to higher wisdom and karmic purpose. Meditating reveals the unique secrets they hold for you. The star shape is said to aid extra terrestrial contact. Cerussite helps explore past lives that were not on earth and aids in recognising people from past lives and the place they hold in the present life. It explains why you chose to come to earth, the lessons you are learning, the task you have to do and the gifts you bring to aid the evolution of humanity. This stone assists in letting go of the past and its effects. Charoite Charoite is a stone of transformation. It is the soul stone that overcomes fear. Charoite stimulates inner vision and spiritual insight and aids in coping with enormous change at a spiritual level. To facilitate this it synthesises the heart and crown chakras, cleanses the aura, and stimulates unconditional love. Charoite aids vibrational change and links to higher realities Chevron Amethyst Chakra: Third eye Chevron Amethyst is one of the best third eye stimulators. It enhances inner and outer vision, and out of body journeys. It has powerfully focussed energy that dissipates and repels negativity. This stone cleanses the aura and aids in auric diagnosis. It has a strong healing field, bringing harmony to the organs of the body and stimulating the immune system. 15 Citrine Herkimer Chakra: solar plexus, heart Citrine Herkimer clears away poverty consciousness and the ingrained programmes and beliefs that keep you mired in poverty, opening the way to abundance and enhancing motivation. A powerful cleanser and regenerator, this is an excellent stone for enhancing earth energies, making them sparkle, and for encouraging the ethical harvesting of the riches and resources of the environment. Placed in the ground, Citrine Herkimer purifies the creative force and encourages abundant fertility in all that grows. Worn around the neck, Citrine Herkimer is a powerful protector for the aura, subtle bodies and chakras. It can be helpful in cleansing and realigning cellular memory. Citrine Spirit Quartz Chakra: earth and solar plexus Citrine Spirit Quartz brings about purification of intent and is particularly useful for accessing abundance whilst at the same time releasing any dependence on, or attachment to, material things. Promoting self-awareness, it purifies and cleanses the aura. Citrine Spirit Quartz assists you to stand centred in your power and to direct your life from that place. Used in grids, Citrine Spirit Quartz protects a house against electromagnetic smog or geopathic stress and heals disturbed earth energies. Citrine Spirit Quartz assists in conflict resolution and can be programmed to send forgiveness to those you feel have wronged you, or to ask for forgiveness. Chalcopyrite Chakra: Crown Chalcopyrite is said to put you through ‘the fires of truth’. An excellent aid to achieving the state of ‘no mind’ required for deep meditation and contemplation of the perfection of the universe, it assists in assimilating spiritual knowledge, linking you to ancient civilisations or the cause of present life difficulties or diseases. A powerful energy conduit, Chalcopyrite supports during Tai Chi and is excellent for heightening acupuncture or acupressure as it dissolves energy blockages and enhances the movement of Qi around the body, stabilising cell energy as higher frequencies are integrated 16 Chrysotile (Chrysotite) Chakra: third eye If you angle Chrysotile, it is possible to see ancient writing inscribed upon it that links you to the knowledge of the ages and, below that, your power animal waiting to make itself known so that you can embody it. This deeply shamanic stone assists you to clear away the debris of the past to reveal your core self. It also shows you where you seek to control others, assisting you to let that go whilst steering your own destiny. In healing, placed over the thymus, Chrysotile works on the etheric blueprint to correct imbalances and blockages that could manifest as physical disease and to heal cellular memory. Covellite Chakra: third eye, sacral, solar plexus Covellite opens a doorway to the past and to the wisdom you acquired at that time. It also helps you to release anything holding you in the past, particularly ingrained beliefs or cellular programs. Covellite facilitates the flow of energy through cells. It harmonizes body, mind and soul and helps you to love yourself unconditionally whilst eliminating vanity. Creedite Chakra: throat, crown Creedite attunes you to a high spiritual vibration and assists in clarifying channelled messages and impressions received from the higher planes. Said to assist in linking to the universal wisdom embodied in ancient texts, it enhances communication and understanding of wisdom at any level. Creedite facilitates out of body experiences, guiding the soul to its destination and promoting total recall of the experience. Orange Creedite imparts urgency to spiritual evolution, speeding up the ability to move between multidimensional levels of consciousness and attuning the physical body to the changing vibration. Danburite Danburite is an excellent stone for facilitating deep change and for leaving the past behind. It can act as a karmic cleanser particularly for the heart, releasing miasms and mental imperatives that have been carried forward. It starts the soul off 17 on a new direction. Placed by the bedside, this crystal can accompany the dying on their journey beyond death, enabling a conscious spiritual transition to take place. Datolite Chakra: heart, third eye, crown When meditated with, Datolite facilitates the retrieval of information encoded in the subtle DNA, retrieving ancestral patterns and events, and the soul and far memory. Desirite Chakra: all A rare stone, Desirite has been designated the ‘as above so below’ stone, personifying the ancient astrological and alchemical doctrine of correspondence. This strongly grounding phantom nevertheless takes you to a very high vibration. Rubbing your thumb up the crystal takes you into profound meditative states, each level can be accessed successively, the first linking to Native America and Lemuria and the phantoms acting like lift stops. Desirite is excellent for angel and ascended master work and for accessing lives far back in the history of the planet. Resonating to the master number 44, it leads into metamorphosis and multidimensional transmutation, and a re-cognition of the interweaving of the divine with the spiritual. Desirite does not work well as part of a healing layout, it is best used alone or to align and rebalance after a healing session or to facilitate cellular memory reframing. Dumortierite Chakra: past life, throat, third eye, soma Dumortierite makes you more receptive when communicating with angelic or spirit guides and sees the worth in each human being. Placed immediately behind the ear, it opens clairaudience. An excellent stone for past life work, Dumortierite takes you to the beginning of your soul journey to examine the soul contracts and agreements made over aeons of time, renegotiating these if no longer applicable. Placed on the soma or past life chakras, it stimulates recall, assists the breaking of old ties that no longer serve, and facilitates rescinding vows. Showing you your archetypal spiritual self, it reconnects to your innate wisdom. Dumortierite is particularly useful for identifying and releasing past life cause of dis-ease, difficult 18 circumstances or relationships in the present life, and the patterns that underlie addictions and compulsions so that cellular memory can be programmed. Epidote Chakra: heart Not everyone responds to Epidote but it is said to increase spiritual attunement and to remove ingrained resistance to spiritual awakening. Its regenerative effect may create a powerful detoxification of negative energy from the aura, which can be experienced as a once-and-for-all catharsis or abreaction that clears the emotional blueprint and cellular memory. Eilat Stone Chakra: higher heart, heart and throat Flushing out hurt and loss, it removes detritus and toxins created from soulshattering events in current or previous lives, Eilat stone cleanses the thymus. Bringing about acceptance and inner reconciliation, it calls the fragments home and wipes the Akashic Record clean, reprogramming soul and cellular memory. Eudialyte Chakra: heart, links base and heart, opens and aligns all A personal power stone imbued with life force, Eudialyte expedites profound change and assists in learning from apparent mistakes. If you are angry at God, Eudialyte brings about reconciliation. Connecting spirit and mind with the emotional body, it brings about reorientation of your inner being. This stone draws together soul-companions and throws light into the reason for the reunion. Elestial Quartz (see different types) Chakra: crown, bridges the flow of energy between all. A stone of change and transformation, Elestial Quartz turns confusion into illumination and sets you on your life path. Connecting to the eternal self, it links to the divine and higher planes of guidance, and opens spiritual gifts. Excellent for attuning to the eternal knowledge at the heart of the universe and within one’s own soul, this crystal takes you into other lives to understand your karma or deep into your self to give insight into evolutionary soul processes at work. It facilitates deep 19 karmic release and brings about core soul healing and regenerates cellular memory. Smoky Elestial is particularly useful for gridding rooms to maintain a clean energy space and Amethyst Elestial for creating a safe and high vibrational spiritual working space. Faden Quartz Chakra: opens all, especially crown and past life Faden Quartz enhances self-healing and personal growth, purifies the aura and harmonizes chakra energy flow. Excellent for communication during the healing process, Faden Quartz unifies the self, encouraging fragmented soul parts to reintegrate. When working at a distance, Faden Quartz connects healer and patient. The thread simulates the ‘silver cord’ attaching the etheric body to the physical during out of body experiences, and protects during journeying. Faden Quartz provides a link to the higher self when seeking answers. Helpful during past life regression, especially between lives, it overviews soul lessons and root causes of disease. A gap bridger, this crystal attunes the energies of a group, particularly if the intention is to heal something ‘broken’ or overcome conflict. If you are suffering from intense internal trauma, Faden Quartz gives you strength to overcome. It can be used to grid areas of unstable earth or physical energy. Fairy Quartz Fairy Quartz is a less ethereal stone than Spirit Quartz, the crystals along the laser point being tiny and less prominent and its vibrations more earthly but it nevertheless carries the vibration of Spirit Quartz. Rather than high spiritual dimensions, it links into the Faery kingdom and contacts planetary and earth devas, assisting you to unravel your family myths and the ancestral or cultural stories in which you are locked and reframe these where appropriate. This is a useful stone for families as it soothes the home environment, removes emotional pain and quietens children after nightmares. Fairy Quartz can be used as a wand to draw out emotional or physical dis-ease or to introduce healing energy into the body, especially that of a child. This stone is perfect for programming to manifest the desires of your creative inner child. 20 Fenster Quartz Chakra: all Fenster Quartz is an excellent tool for sending healing light and for energy work that requires a high vibration. The natural etched triangle formations within the planes of Fenster Quartz can be traversed as an inner landscape for insight or meditation. This stone stimulates clairvoyance (clear seeing) and assists in healing dysfunctional patterns and outgrown emotions. It throws light on the past life or childhood causes of addiction and assists in removing them, letting go the need for ‘more’ that so often leads to obsessions and compulsions of all kinds and reprogramming cellular memory. It is also beneficial for conditions such as obsessive compulsive disorder or Tourette’s Syndrome. Flame Aura Spirit Quartz Flame Aura Spirit Quartz brings about a profound multidimensional energy shift, drawing kundalini energy up the spine and through all the subtle bodies. This crystal mediates its effect to provide what each individual soul needs for its evolution. With its powerful violet emanation, it harmonizes all the rays and the astrological chart. This stone assists you to ‘read’ people. Flame Aura Quartz is a powerful initiation tool. Fuchsite Fuchsite deals with issues of servitude from past or present lives and reverses a tendency towards martyrdom. It is excellent for those who instantly fall into saviour or rescuer mode, whether it be to save one person or the whole, and who then quickly become a victim. It shows how to be of service without becoming embroiled in power struggles or false humility. Fuchsite shows how to do only what is appropriate and necessary for someone else’s soul growth and to stand by placidly whilst they learn their own lessons. It combines unconditional love with the tough love that no longer facilitates a condition in which one appears to be ‘helping’ and in so doing receives great psychological satisfaction. Fuchsite releases both souls to their own unique pathway. It is particularly helpful for ‘the identified patient’ within a family or group situation on who dis-ease and tension is projected. Fuchsite gives the identified patient the strength to find wellness and to withdraw from the family conflict. Fuchsite overcomes co-dependency and emotional blackmail. 21 Gaia Stone Chakra: Earth, heart, harmonizes all Gaia Stone is said to link to the devas and the anima terra, the soul of the earth. Use it to journey to the inner worlds of the earth and yourself. Girasol (Blue Opal) Chakra: third eye An excellent visioning stone that reveals solutions to current difficulties especially where these are created by something that could not be spoken about in the past, or was suppressed through lack of confidence, Girasol enhances connections between souls and shows how these can be beneficial in the present life. Pinpointing your hidden feelings and the psychic impressions you may inadvertently pick up, it helps you to know the deeper causes of discontent, strengthens your boundaries and is extremely useful when past life experiences or injuries are affecting the present life. These can be healed through the etheric blueprint as Girasol dissolves the ‘scars’, allowing the physical body to release the condition and cellular memory to heal. Goethite Chakra: clears base and aligns all. Goethite resonates to the master number 44, the number of metamorphosis and transmutation. This angel-attuned stone creates profound stillness that takes you to a point of non-action and non-doing. Conversely, it supplies the energy necessary for discovery and exploration of the human journey – and enjoyment of the process. Increasing divinatory powers, Goethite illuminates the future where this is helpful for your soul journey and allows you to attune to the note of the earth. Golden Enhydro Herkimer Chakra: solar plexus, third eyes, crown and higher crown Containing bubbles of liquid millions of years old, Enhydros symbolise the collective unconscious underlying and uniting everything, bringing about deep emotional healing and transmutation. Golden Enhydro Herkimer is a rare stone that is incredibly energetic. An excellent developer spiritual gifts that stimulates the third eye, clearing implants eye and removing restrictions placed on spiritual sight in this 22 or any other life, it takes you straight to the ages-old wisdom of the Himalayas. A powerful healer for the solar plexus and for emotional disturbances that have been carried over many lifetimes, Golden Enhydro cleanses the emotional body and blueprint, creating emotional wellbeing. This stone eliminates gender confusion or ambivalence in those who have changed sex from one incarnation to another. Green Phantom Quartz Chakra: Earth, base, solar plexus, heart, third eye, spleen Absorbing negativity and environmental pollutants, Chlorite-included Green Phantom Quartz clears a build up of stagnant energy anywhere in the body or environment. A large Chlorite Phantom placed point down in a lavatory cistern energetically cleanses the whole house. This stone can assist with the removal of energy implants, accessing their source in this or any other lifetime. Chlorite has strong associations with nature and with mother earth. Halite Chakra: Crown (varies according to colour) Halite is a stone of purification, symbolising spiritual discernment and stimulating multidimensional evolution. Protecting against negative energies, entity attachment or psychic attack, Halite dissolves old behaviour patterns, negative thoughts. Affording effective protection at all times, Halite is said to prevent inadvertent spirit possession. Pink Halite is a useful tool for detaching entities and spirit possessions at all levels, and for preventing reattachment, or attachment of new. Blue Halite opens the metaphysical gates, heightens intuition and encourages mystical awareness. This stone is extremely useful for reprogramming a distorted vision of reality and for cleansing mental attachments or undue influence from the third eye. Hematite Hematite is particularly effective at grounding and protecting. It harmonizes mind body and spirit. Used during out of body journeying, it protects the soul and grounds it back into the body. 23 Hemimorphite Chakra: higher heart, higher crown, solar plexus, past life Hemimorphite encourages the raising of the body’s vibrations and communication with the highest spiritual levels and multidimensions. This crystal facilitates self-development in the quickest way possible so it is unlikely to create a smooth passage through life. A stone of personal responsibility, it links you to your higher self, encouraging acceptance for your own happiness or dis-ease, and teaches that you create your own reality through thoughts and attitudes. It also helps you to recognise where you fall under outside influences that do not accord with your own soul-view, and to release from these. Hematoid Calcite Chakra: higher crown, solar plexus, base Hematoid Calcite is an excellent stone if you experience an influx of energy that needs grounding and assimilating. Simply hold it or place over the base chakra for five or ten minutes or until the energy stabilises. Icicle Calcite Chakra: solar plexus, third eye, clears all Icicle Calcite is a guidance crystal that increases the ability to see things in a new way and fires your creativity. Icicle Calcite is a powerful amplifier of energy with strong purifying and cleansing properties that quickly remove stagnant energies. The white portion of Icicle Calcite can be used like a wand to pull multidimensional dis-ease, disharmony or blockages from the body and, once the crystal has been cleansed, the resulting ‘hole’ can be repaired and re-energised with the orange portion. . Indicolite Quartz Chakra: third eye, throat Indicolite Quartz has inclusions of Blue Tourmaline and meditating with it puts you in touch with your life purpose and your spiritual helpers. An excellent stone for stimulating out of body experiences and for journeying through different realms of consciousness, Indicolite Quartz transports you to very high vibration indeed and offers you an overview of your lives and insight into why you have chosen to incarnate again. This stone is ideal for healers as it prevents negativity 24 from sticking and assists in diagnosis and location of the site of dis-ease: the crystal ‘jumps’ when it reaches the point of greatest disharmony. This stone should be placed anywhere there is dis-ease or congestion and cleansed frequently. It is an excellent healer for cellular memory. Iolite Chakra: third eye Iolite is a vision stone. It activates the third eye and facilitates visualisation and intuitive insight when all the chakras are in alignment. It is used in shamanic ceremonies and aids journeys out of the body. In contact with the auric field, Iolite gives off an electrical charge that re-energies the field and aligns with the subtle bodies. Jasper Chakra: depends on colour Jasper aligns the chakras and can be used in chakra layouts. Each colour is appropriate to a specific chakra. It facilitates shamanic journeys and dream recall. Jasper provides protection and grounds energies and the body, absorbs negative energy and cleanses and aligns the chakras and the aura. Jasper balances yin and yang and aligns the physical, emotional and mental bodies with the etheric realm. It clears electromagnetic and environmental pollution including radiation, and aids dowsing. Kunzite Kunzite is a protective stone, working on the individual and the environment. It has the power to dispel negativity. This stone shields from unwanted energies, providing a protective sheath around the aura, and dispels attached entities and mental influences from the aura. It imparts the ability to be self contained even within a the crowd. It strengthens the energy field around the body. Clear Kunzite aids soul retrieval work. It facilitates the journey back to the site of the soul loss and can be used as the receptacle for the soul until it is reintegrated into the body. Yellow Kunzite Clears aligns the chakras, restructures DNA, stabilizes the cellular blueprint. Lilac Kunzite is a Celestial Doorway and a symbol of infinity. It aids transition for the dying, imparting the knowledge the departing soul requires, helping them move over into enlightenment. Lilac Kunzite breaks through the 25 barriers of time into the infinite. Hiddenite (Green Kunzite) connects to other worlds to assist the transfer of knowledge from the higher realms. In healing, Hiddenite aids diagnosis when gently ‘combed’ over the body, showing areas of weakness, coldness and dis-ease. Labradorite Labradorite is a highly mystical and protective stone, a bringer of light. It raises consciousness and connects with universal energies. Labradorite deflects unwanted energies from the aura and prevents energy leakage. It forms a barrier to negative energies shed during therapy. It can take you into another world or into other lives. A stone of esoteric knowledge, it facilitates initiation into the mysteries. Labradorite aligns the physical and etheric bodies and accesses spiritual purpose. It raises consciousness and grounds spiritual energies into the physical body. This stone stimulates the intuition and psychic gifts including ‘right timing’, bringing messages from the unconscious mind to the surface, aiding their understanding. Psychologically, Labradorite banishes fears and insecurities and the psychic debris from previous disappointments – including past lives. It removes other people’s projections, including thought forms that have hooked into the aura. This stone brings up suppressed memories from the past. A stone of transformation, it prepares body and soul for the ascension process. Lavender Quartz Chakra: heart, throat, brow and higher crown Lavender Quartz raises the vibration of Rose Quartz to an even higher spiritual connection. An excellent stimulator for metaphysical gifts and for interdimensional communication, it takes meditation to a new high. A stone of self re-membering and heightened self-awareness, it enables recall of what you do in all dimensions of consciousness and re-membering the vast spectrum of your spiritual self. Lavender Quartz brings about profound emotional and multidimensional healing. Lavender-Violet Smithsonite Lavender-Violet Smithsonite clears negative energy, aids joyful spiritual service and higher states of consciousness, giving guidance and protection. It is an 26 excellent stone for meditation and soul retrieval and aids going back into past lives to regain soul energy that did not make the transition away from a past life death. In this respect, it can heal past life death trauma and point the way to soul healing. Lepidolite Chakra: throat, heart, third-eye and crown When Lepidolite takes mica-like form its properties are greatly amplified and this is the most efficient ‘mopping up’ tool. Lepidolite insists on being used for the highest good. It dissipates negativity, activates and opens the throat, heart, third-eye and crown chakras, clearing blockages and bringing cosmic awareness. This stone aids in shamanic or spiritual journeying and accesses the Akashic Record. It tunes you in to thoughts and feelings from other lives that are creating a blockage in your life now. It can take you forward into the future. Leopardskin Jasper Chakra: base, heart, crown Leopardskin Jasper is said to be redressing the balance between light and dark, recognising the value of dark as a complement to light rather than its enemy. It is a shape shifter’s stone. Extremely helpful in assisting fulfilling karmic agreements or soul contracts made before incarnating, if those contracts are no longer appropriate this stone assists you to rescind or renegotiate the terms and intent. Leopardskin Jasper shuts off outer vision, focussing perception, and insists you listen your own inner voice. Conversely, by mirroring the outside world back to you, Leopardskin Jasper clears ingrained assumptions and teaches you to see what is, assessing your situation more clearly. 27 Leopardskin Agate An energetic cleansing and stabilising stone, Leopardskin Agate is beneficial for healers and counsellors who find themselves becoming over-involved with their patients or taking on their conditions as it promotes objectivity and detachment. It also protects against burnout and offers you and your patient pure unconditional love. This stone is particularly useful for working through heavy emotional baggage, whether at a personal or cultural level and it helps to adjust to the political challenges of the modern world. If you seek to become a shapeshifter or a shaman, Leopardskin Agate can assist. Leopardskin Serpentine Chakra: third eye, soma, past life Leopardskin Serpentine is a tactile stone that responds to holding rather than placement on the body. A shamanic stone, it assists you to access Leopard energy and to travel with the Leopard as a power or healing animal, or to shapeshift. As such, it is of enormous assistance in reclaiming power especially where this has been misplaced in previous lives or in other dimensions. With its powerful grounding energy, Leopardskin Serpentine keeps you earthed whilst undertaking otherworld journeys and facilitates trancework and meditation, opening a direct channel to spiritual guidance. It offers insights into why you are living the life you are and assists with any adjustments that may be necessary to align with your soul plan for the present lifetime. Lepidocrocite in Quartz or Amethyst Chakra: all A manifestation empowerment stone taking you beyond time and space to communicate with angelic realms, Lepidocrocite in Quartz assists with astral journeying by maintaining contact, via the silver cord, between the physical and etheric bodies. Protecting the soul as it travels, it ensures a smooth return, and enables insights to be brought consciously into the physical body. Lepidocrocite in Quartz strengthens awareness of all the bodies, harmonizing the physical, etheric and biomagnetic sheaths. Used with awareness, this combination takes you forward into the future to see the effects of present actions or to the highest levels of being to meet your true self. Dissolving false self-image and delusions, it replaces this with true perception. In healing, this combination enhances transfer of Reiki energy or the 28 rebirthing process, facilitates release of blockages, and assists with soul retrieval or house clearing. Limonite Chakra: sacral, base, earth Limonite is a grounding and protective stone that stabilizes your life and stimulates your inner strength, particularly when faced with extreme conditions. Affording the physical body protection during metaphysical activities, Limonite guards against mental influence or psychic attack and psychic overwhelm. Marcasite Chakra: base Marcasite expands your metaphysical abilities, especially that of spirit awareness and clairvoyance, whilst providing a psychic shield and grounding you in the everyday world. It especially assists and protects those who undertake houseclearing or entity removal. Menalite Chakra: sacral Menalite reminds us of the endlessly recurring cycles of life and is excellent for rebirth and reincarnation and coming to terms with death. This deeply shamanic stone has been used for aeons of time to journey to other realms and carry out metaphysical work. Many of the stones simulate power animals or the ancient fertility goddess and this nurturing stone provides a durable link to the earth mother, taking you back into her womb. It also assists in re-membering your soul. Enhancing divination and forecasting, Menalite is an excellent stone for reconnecting to the wise feminine and to the power of the priestess. It is the perfect stone for conducting the rites of the passage that mark out the transitions through womanhood. Merlinite Merlinite is a magical stone that holds the imprint of the combined knowledge of shamans, alchemists, magician-priests and other workers of magic. Its dual colouring blends the spiritual and earthly vibrations together, giving access to 29 the spiritual and shamanic realms. This stone supports during shamanic practices or magical ritual. It aids reading the Akashic record, inducing travel into past or future lives to gain insight on how to live life in the future. Moldative Moldavite has its own cosmic oversoul, which can put you in touch with the Ascended Masters and cosmic messengers. Holding the stone up to the light and gazing into it shifts your consciousness. This stone takes you into the highest spiritual dimensions and facilitates the ascension process. It needs to be grounded or else it can leave you spaced out and rootless. Holding a pair of Boji Stones gently grounds after spiritual experiences with Moldavite and the energies of clear Quartz stabilise its effects. Morganite This stone helps to recognise the escape routes, close-mindedness and egotism that blocks spiritual advancement. It assists in becoming aware of the disregarded needs of the soul. Morganite also aids in recognising unfulfilled emotional needs and unexpressed feelings. Morganite is a powerful stone for dissolving conscious or unconscious resistance to healing and transformation, clearing victim mentality and opening the heart to receive unconditional love and healing. It holds the emotional body stable while psychosomatic changes takes place. Muscovite Muscovite has strong angelic contact. Stimulating awareness of the higher self. this visionary stone links to the highest spiritual realms. Muscovite stimulates the heart chakra, facilitates astral travel and opens the intuition and psychic vision. Muscovite has the ability to allow recognition of the flaws in humanity and at the same time stimulates unconditional love and acceptance. It is a reflective stone, mirroring back and allowing us to recognise our projections. Muscovite then aids in the integration and transformation of these qualities. Muscovite releases tension within the physical body and aligns the subtle bodies and meridians with the physical body, bringing about balance. 30 Nebula Stone Nebula Stone blends the vibration of light carried in its Quartz component into the physical body, enlightening the cells and activating their consciousness. This raises overall conscious awareness, bringing remembrance of the soul’s spiritual roots. Gazing into a Nebula Stone takes you outwards into infinity and inwards into the smallest particle of being. Ultimately, the two become one. This is a stone of non-duality and oneness. Nebula Stone can bring about profound healing at the cellular level of being. Novaculite Chakra: crown and higher crown, opens, energises and aligns all Novaculite hones the spirit and the psyche and creates an intense one-pointed strongly focussed energy beam. This stone has an extremely light and high energy that facilitates angelic contact and multidimensional journeying. An excellent conductor of electromagnetic energy, Novaculite is beneficial for the etheric body and for making necessary amendments to clear dis-ease out of the etheric blueprint. It is helpful in finding the gift in any situation no matter how dire it may seem. The ultimate cord cutting tool, Novaculite glides through blockages and problems, and through the ties that etherically link people together. Used at the chakras, it cuts these cords and heals the site. Nuummite Chakra: past life, soma, opens and integrates all. Nuummite is the sorcerer’s stone. Scintillating flashes assist in seeing beyond the outer façade, and create an inner landscape to be traversed. A protective stone, strengthening the auric shield and effective against pollutants and sorcery, Nuummite helps you to travel with stealth and sureness. It shields from sight and is a useful stone to safeguard your car. This powerful stone has an element of magic that needs to be used respectfully, with right intention, or it could rebound. Nuummite assists in recognising past life contacts and highlights karmic debts stemming from misuse of power, reminding you not to go there again. Placed on the soma chakra it draws karmic debris out of the physical and emotional bodies. With its strong electro-magnetic field, Nuummite quickly restores energy and power that has been depleted by karmic debts, or other causes, and clears blockages including those that are self-imposed, reprogramming cellular memory. Severing 31 entanglements that stem from past manipulation or incantations, Nuummite removes difficulties that arise from another person’s misguided sense of still needing to protect or guide you. Having cleansed the spurious sense of self that derives from those experiences, Nuummite then connects you to your true self. Cutting through to your core, it allows you to reprogram your thoughts and to be responsible for your own protection. At the same time, Nuummite teaches respect and honour, fulfilling obligations and promises that are relevant to life today, encouraging serendipitous synchronicity. This stone aligns the aura with the physical body, and also removes mental implants from an extraterrestrial or magical source. Nuummite should be set in silver, especially for ritual working. This stone works well combined with Novaculite, which provides spiritual guidance as to its use. Obsidian In skilled hands, Obsidian’s cathartic qualities are exceedingly valuable. It provides deep soul healing. Obsidian can aid in going back to past lives to heal festering emotions or trauma that has carried forward into the present. Obsidian is a strongly protective stone, forming a shield against negativity. It provides a grounding cord from the base chakra to the centre of the earth, absorbs negative energies from the environment and strengthens in times of need. It is helpful for highly sensitive people. It blocks psychic attack and removes negative spiritual influences. A large piece of Obsidian can be extremely efficient at blocking geopathic stress or soaking up environmental pollution but its propensity for exploding the truth out into the open has to be taken into account. Many people find its powerful effects overwhelming and prefer to choose a gentler stone for this task. But it is extremely helpful for therapists and counsellors as it not only facilitates getting to the core of the problem but also mops up energies released as a result. One of the gentler forms of Obsidian such as an Apache Tear or Snowflake would be best for this. As Obsidian is so effective in soaking up negative energies, it is essential to clean the stone under running water each time it has been used in this way. Spiritually, Obsidian vitalizes soul purpose. It eliminates energy blockages and relieves tension integrating the psychological shadow into the whole to bring spiritual integrity. It anchors the spirit into the body. 32 Ocean Orbicular Jasper Chakra: heart, solar plexus Meditating with this stone takes you back to reclaim your wisdom or to reframe and transmute misuse of spiritual power at that time. The swirling patterns symbolises the interconnectedness of all things and remind us that nature is cyclical, rhythmical and fluid. Opal Chakra: third eye, crown, soma Opal is a delicate stone with a fine vibration. It enhances cosmic consciousness and induces psychic and mystical visions. Opal is absorbent and reflective. It picks up thoughts and feelings, amplifies them, and returns them from whence they came. It is a karmic stone, teaching that what you put out comes back. Opal is a protective stone in that, when properly programmed, it makes you unnoticeable or invisible. It can be used when venturing into dangerous places, including shamanic work where stealth is required. Orange Phantom Quartz Chakra: base and sacral, solar plexus, third eye, heart. A strongly energising and rejuvenating crystal containing Carnelian, Orange Phantom is overcomes an addictive personality ending the constant search for ‘more’ and focussing on recovery. It enables you to journey to contact your higher self and to access who you really are. Oregon Opal Chakra: throat, solar plexus, heart A highly spiritual stone that carries the vibration of cosmic consciousness and facilitates moving between dimensions, Oregon Opal assists in past life exploration and is an extremely effective tool for releasing old grief, trauma and disappointment. This stone searches out lies, both those from other people and those arising from our own self-deceptions and delusions. 33 Petalite Chakra: Crown and higher crown Petalite opens to cosmic consciousness and aids in spiritual purification. This is a protective stone that enhances meditation and attunement. It takes you to a very calm and clear spiritual dimension from which causes can be ascertained and transmuted. It is particularly useful for ancestral and family healing as it reaches back to a time before the dysfunction arose. It provides a safe environment for spiritual contact or for a vision quest. It activates and energises the process, and at the same time grounds during spiritual activity. This stone calms the aura and opens the throat and higher crown chakras, linking to high spiritual vibrations. It moves you beyond your present metaphysical abilities, linking to the highest levels of spiritual knowing, and facilitates speaking of what one sees during spiritual visions. It can be used to release negative karma and to clear entities from the aura or the mental body. It is extremely helpful during tie cutting as it brings the higher selves of each person into the process and neutralizes manipulation at any level. Carried on the body, Petalite constantly energises and activates all the energy centres of the body at every level. It enhances and energises the environment in which it finds itself. Phantom Quartz Chakra: Varies according to colour. Symbolizing universal awareness and the many lifetimes of the soul, Phantom facilitates transitions. A multi-layered Phantom takes you travelling through many dimensions or into your innermost self, stripping away the layers to reveal your core. Stimulating healing for the planet and rejigging detrimental landscape patterns, it activates healing ability. Accessing the Akashic Record, reading past lives and recovering repressed memories to put the past into context, Phantom takes you into the between-lives state to discover current soul plan and assess the next step, or to access healing the physical body through the etheric blueprint. A Phantom reconciles you to your shadow. Multi-layered White Phantom Quartz considerably expands the transmission light and information between higher realms and the earth, opening the recipient to receive healing across immense distances. White Phantoms have been used for psychic surgery and to remove impacted layers of karma opening the way for the karma of grace to operate and for cellular memory healing to occur. 34 Phenacite Phenacite is purifying and integrating, bring the spiritual vibrations down to earth. It resonates with the etheric body, activates the light body and aids the ascension process. This crystal heals the soul and purifies the subtle and physical bodies to provide a suitable vehicle for it. Its energies are only available to those who have prepared themselves by shifting their personal vibration to a higher level. Phenacite has a strong connection with all the chakras and imparts knowledge on how to heal and activate them all. Pink Crackle Quartz Chakra: solar plexus and heart. A useful adjunct to Reiki healing, facilitating contact with your higher self, this stone can also be used to heal an abused or emotionally damaged child. Peach Selenite Chakra: all, especially solar plexus and sacral Peach Selenite is a powerful cleanser and healer and is the perfect accompaniment for those who are immersed in old emotional trauma and who need to re-view their lives particularly if circumstances have necessitated a trip into the underworld. Drawing out issues of abandonment, rejection, alienation and betrayal, no matter when those occurred, Peach Selenite transmutes the energy into healing, forgiveness and acceptance. Symbolising the transmuting fires of the planet Pluto and the earthy wisdom of his wife Persephone, Peach Selenite is the perfect accompaniment for an evolutionary jump into self-awareness and new life. This is a stone that affords deep insight into the cycles of birth, death, and rebirth and which opens the priestess in every woman. It is perfect for thanksgiving moon rituals at times of transition such as puberty or childbirth. Pietersite Chakra: past life Pietersite is a stone of vision and can be used for a vision quest or shamanic journey. Reminding you you are a spiritual being on a human journey. Centering in the spiritual being, Pietersite has the ability to ground you not to the earth but to the etheric body. This facilitates spiritual journeying, especially to read the Akashic 35 Record and the insights on your incarnations that are to be found there. It works strongly with the body in moving meditations, quickly accessing a very high state of altered awareness. It stimulates the third eye and the pineal gland, accessing the intuition and promoting profound spiritual visions and pre-cognition. It dissolves stubborn blocks and clears confusion. Used in past life healing, Pietersite removes dis-ease caused by not following one’s own truth. It releases mental and verbal conditioning, beliefs imposed by all and any authority figures in the past, and dispels spiritual illusions. It can release you from vows and promises made in other lives that have carried over into the present life. Pumice Chakra: higher heart (thymus) Pumice is a powerful healer in certain situations. Placed over the thymus, it releases old pain held in the heart and gut, and heals longstanding emotional wounds and reprogram emotional cellular memory. Pumice can be used after treatment to cleanse negative energy from the therapist. Pyrolusite Pyrolusite is an extremely useful stone to place in your immediate environment or meditation space. It repels negative energy and dispels psychic interference from any source, strengthening the aura in the process. It can prevent undue mental influence from someone with a strong mind, dissolve emotional manipulation, and provide a barrier to the attentions of those who inhabit the lower astral worlds. Quartz Clear Quartz works on all levels of being. Storing information like a natural computer, these crystals are a spiritual library waiting to be accessed. Quartz has the ability to dissolve karmic seeds. It enhances psychic abilities and attunes you to your spiritual purpose. (See different types of Quartz) Quartz with Mica Chakra: third eye, crown, aligns all This ancient shamanic stone heightens intuition and the ability to act on this in a practical manner. If you wish to sharpen your dreamwork, perception or 36 progression along the spiritual path, Quartz with Mica assists by heightening connection to your spiritual self, facilitating transmutation and connection to unconditional love and enhancing ability to distinguish true intuition from instincts and compulsions of the sub-conscious mind or unconscious longings of the emotional self. Quartz with Mica heightens the energetic response to acupuncture and acupressure. Passing Quartz with Mica around the body identifies and seals the site of energy leakage and transmutes negative energy held in the chakras or aura. It is excellent for cellular memory healing. Quartz on Sphalerite Chakra: base A powerful energy cleanser that removes mental overload, Quartz on Sphalerite facilitates journeying. The Sphalerite component helps you to recognise deceit and to ascertain whether channelled, or other information is ‘truth’ or deception. This stone aligns the etheric bodies with the physical so that information is more readily available. Sphalerite anchors those for whom the earth is not their natural home into incarnation, making them feel more comfortable. Quartz on Sphaelerite helps with gender alignment especially where the soul inhabits a different sexual body from the last incarnation. Rainforest Jasper Chakra: earth, base and spleen Inhaling the aroma of Rainforest Jasper immediately connects you to nature A natural healer, especially for cellular memory, it draws your attention to the action of plant and re-activates herbal healing knowledge from the far past. It passes on knowledge, especially through the female line, accessing ancestral matriarchs to reconnect to the family myths by which they lived. If you are lost at a soul level, this stone takes you back to your roots to re-anchor yourself and reassess your situation objectivity. Rainforest encourages emotional balance and, with its ability to pause the mind, this is a ‘stone of being’ that allows you to move effortlessly back into balance, and to accept yourself as you are without needing to change. 37 Rainbow Moonstone Chakras: all Rainbow Moonstone houses a spiritual being that carries the vibration of cosmic light and offers spiritual healing for the whole of humanity. As with Moonstone, this stone is powerfully attuned to the cycles and phases of the moon and may need to be removed at full moon. Rainbow Moonstone reminds you that you are part of an ongoing, ever unfolding cycle and links you into your overall lives-plan as well as the current lifeplan. It helps you to see the unseen, to intuitively read symbols and synchronicities, and open to spiritual gifts. If you are highly sensitive, Rainbow Moonstone may leave you open to psychic or emotional overwhelm from other people and may need to be removed when in crowd although it can help with insight in the appropriate circumstances. Red Feldspar with Phenacite Chakra: third eye, higher heart, higher crown The spirit of this stone is joyful, reminding you that spiritual evolution and life on earth do not have to be taken too seriously. It accompanies you back into a dream pointing out the deeper implications as you go, reworking the dream to bring about a fruitful outcome. The Feldspar constituent of this stone is extremely helpful in letting go of the past and especially of ingrained mental and spiritual patterns from past lives, reprogramming cellular memory and enabling the Phenacite to open the way to a much more dynamic way of being. Red Phantom Quartz Chakras: base, sacral, solar plexus A useful stone for removing energy implants and healing ‘gaps’ in the aura, this phantom revitalizes the lower chakras and synthesizes these with the solar plexus to support creativity. Releasing emotional pain or past life trauma, it heals emotional dysfunction. Red Phantom imparts tranquillity to your mind and energises the physical body. It heals your inner child by allowing you to feel what had to be blocked out and repressed in childhood in order to survive and to reconnect to your joy – additional stones may be required to fully heal the child. 38 Reversed Orange Phantom Quartz Chakras: base and sacral Orange Phantom offers clarity into one’s own inner workings and into the true meaning of the universe. Helpful in diagnosis as it takes you into the physical body to the site and subtle cause of dis-ease, It is useful when you need to take control of your life or require long term sustenance and vitality. Rhodochrosite Chakra: heart Rhodochrosite is an excellent stone for the heart and relationships, especially for people who feel unloved. It is the stone par excellence for healing sexual abuse. Rhodochrosite attracts a soulmate but this may not be the blissful experience one hopes for. Soulmates are the people who help us learn our lessons in life and this is not always pleasant but it is for our higher good. Rhodonite Rhodonite clears away emotional wounds and scars from the past – whenever that might be – and brings up painful emotions such as festering resentment or anger for transmutation. This stone has a strong resonance with forgiveness and assists in reconciliation after long term pain and abuse. It can be used in past life healing to deal with betrayal and abandonment. With its ability to promote unselfish self-love and forgiveness, it helps in taking back projections that blame a partner for what is really inside oneself. Rhyolite Rhyolite facilitates change without enforcing it, assists in fulfilling quests and facilitates knowing from a soul level. It can access karmic wisdom. Strengthening soul, body and mind, Rhyolite is immensely helpful when exploring the full extent of one’s self. This stone facilitates a deep state of meditation in which inner and outer journeys may be made. A useful stone for past life healing, Rhyolite processes the past and integrates it with the present. It brings things to a resolution, no matter where the source may have been and actively encourages moving forward. This is an excellent stone to keep you anchored in the present moment rather than harking back to the past. 39 Ruby Aura Quartz Ruby Aura Quartz cleanses the base chakra of old survival issues and abuse, bringing in passion and vitality, and activates the wisdom of the heart. Spiritually uplifting, it opens to Christ consciousness. This is a protective crystal against aggression and violence Ruby In Zoisite (Anyolite) Ruby in Zoisite activates the crown chakra, creates an altered state of consciousness and facilitates access of soul memory and spiritual learning. It can be extremely helpful in soul healing and in past life work. This stone has the unusual property of promoting individuality whilst at the same time retaining interconnectedness with the rest of humanity. It powerfully amplifies the biomagnetic field around the body. Rutile Chakra: sacral Rutile is often included within other crystals to which it imparts an ethereal vibration that enhances out of body journeying, psychic protection and angelic contact. A powerful cleansing crystal, it purifies the biomagnetic sheath, bringing it into balance with the physical body. Going directly to the root of a problem, Rutile heals psychosomatic dis-ease and pinpoints karmic causes of chronic illness and reprograms cellular memory. Rutilated Quartz Rutilated Quartz is said to have a perfect balance of cosmic light and to be an illuminator for the soul, promoting spiritual growth. It cleanses and energises the aura. This stone aids astral travel, scrying and channelling. It facilitates contact with the highest spiritual guidance. It draws off negative energy and breaks down the barriers to spiritual progress, letting go of the past. Rutilated Quartz is helpful for therapists and counsellors as it filters negative energy from a client, and at the same time supports their energy field during emotional release and confrontation with the darker aspects of the psyche. It gives protection against psychic attack. Rutilated Quartz can be used in past life healing to draw off dis-ease from the past and to promote insights into the events in past lives that affect the present. It assists in moving to a core life to access causes and to understand the 40 results of previous actions. It connects to soul lessons and the plan for the present life. Shift Crystal (Quartz) Chakra: heart, higher heart, third eye, crown and higher crown A Shift Crystal does exactly what the name suggests: it shifts you into a new space and accelerates your spiritual growth. It is the perfect stone to take into meditation or to place under your pillow at night but you need to be ready to take whatever a Shift Crystal offers. There is no going back with this crystal and its effects can be dramatic, traumatic and overwhelming as it shifts you onto your soul path, opens healing potential, and clears the evolutionary way forward. Other stones may be needed to help assimilate the changes it creates in your life. A Shift Crystal can greatly amplify Reiki healing, strengthening healer and patient and can be programmed to carry the symbols during and after a session or to reprogram cellular memory. Shiva Lingam Chakra: base and sacral Shiva Lingam is used to raise and control kundalini energy and to facilitate spiritual evolution. This stone has been sacred for thousands of years as a symbol of sexuality and potent male energy. Excellent for sexual healing, it facilitates union of opposites such as masculine and feminine or body and soul. Suitably programmed, a Shiva Lingam severs etheric sexual connection after a relationship has ceased and removes hooks from vagina or uterus, re-energising the base chakras and opening the way for a new relationship. Sichuan Quartz Chakras: all, connects third eye and crown Energetically combining Herkimer and Tibetan Quartz, and carrying an extremely high, sparky vibration, this Chinese Quartz rapidly opens psychic and inner vision. Harmonizing the subtle bodies with the physical, it bridges energy gaps along the chakra line. This rarified and yet grounded Quartz has a centred energy that passes into the body and the personal self, bringing about deep healing of the aura and etheric blueprint from which the present physical body devolved. Beneficial and insightful if held by a healer or past life therapist whilst working with 41 a client, it accesses the Akashic Record putting you in touch with ancient Chinese wisdom, or highlighting the past life reasons for dis-ease or karmic lessons being dealt with in the present life. Silver Sheen Obsidian Chakra: third eye Silver Sheen Obsidian enhances meditation, it provides a mirror of inner being. It is helpful stone when journeying out of the body as it connects the astral body with the physical body and so brings the soul back. Smoky Amethyst Chakra: third eye, soma, past life, higher heart and throat Smoky Amethyst has a two-way charge that earths and allows access to the highest levels of awareness, focusing powerful energy into the body. An extremely efficient stone for entity clearing, especially at the third eye, this gatekeeper protects against psychic attack and alien invasion, repelling negative energy whilst calling in positive and, placed on the soma chakra, attunes you to your pure spiritual self. Clearing the higher heart chakra and opening the throat chakra, it facilitates expression of your own truth. Raising your vibrations, shielding and screening you from background psychic interference, Smoky Amethyst holds a light while you are working in the shadows or underworld. It empowers you to shift ingrained past life trauma or soul splits and reprograms cellular memory. This stone contacts angelic helpers, assisting with disconnection between those who have previously made a mystic marriage and remain intertwined at the higher chakras. Smoky Amethyst gently disentangles energetic connections, sealing against reconnection. Smoky Citrine Chakra: Earth and solar plexus Smoky Citrine does not hold negative energy, instantly transmuting it. This stone is excellent for enhancing psychic abilities and grounding them in everyday reality and for removing blockages from your spiritual path. It is a useful stone for removing vows taken in other lives, especially those of poverty and chastity. Smoky Citrine clears away any beliefs and thought forms that keep you mired in poverty, opening the way to abundance. This stone purifies the etheric blueprint and removes 42 the effects of detrimental attitudes from the past. This stone also assists you to move out of circumstances or an environment that does not allow you to expand. Smoky Elestial Chakras: base, cleanses all Smoky Elestial contacts beneficial helpers in the spirit world to guard and guide you whilst you travel the multidimensional planes of existence. Protective, grounding and energetically cleansing, this intense stone takes you into past lives to reclaim your power, purify negativity and release from anyone who has enslaved you. It releases karmic enmeshment and magical rituals that no longer serve. Particularly useful during reframing and past life healing, it works equally well in present life adjustments, creating profound multidimensional cellular healing especially combined with Amethyst. A Smoky Elestial is an extremely efficient tool for mopping up negative energy and healing its effects, pulling past life trauma out of the current physical body, and healing the etheric blueprint and aura. This stone cleanses and heals the ancestral line of trauma and emotional pain. Smoky Herkimer Chakra: earth and base. Smoky Herkimer is an excellent psychic clearing tool and an earth healer. It protects against electromagnetic or geopathic pollution and draws its effects out of the subtle bodies. Smoky Phantom Quartz Chakra: past life Smoky Phantom Quartz takes you back to before you left your soul group and links into the purpose of a group incarnation. Assisting you to attract members of your soul group to fulfil your karmic or spiritual task, if negative energies have intervened in the group purpose, Smoky Phantom takes it back to the original intention. This Phantom takes you to before a personal problem or pattern originated reconnecting to wholeness and bringing that forward. Smoky Phantom also accesses shaman or wise woman lives, activating your karmic wisdom. 43 Smoky Rose Quartz Chakra: Heart and higher heart Smoky Rose Quartz dissolves provides a protective shield to allow healing to continue. This beautiful stone keeps your environment pure, quickly transmuting negative energy and replacing it with love. The perfect stone to accompany anyone who is frightened of death or dying, it should be placed by bed or under the pillow. Smoky Spirit Quartz Chakra: base and third eye Strongly protective, grounding and cleansing, Smoky Spirit Quartz promotes multidimensional cellular healing and integration. This stone is a most effective psychopomp, conveying the soul safely to the next world. As it does so, it cleanses the subtle bodies, removing layers of karmic and emotional debris to reprogram cellular memory, ensuring a good rebirth. In a similar way, it is beneficial for any work that entails visiting the underworld or exploring the subconscious mind as it cleanses and releases deeply held emotions and states of dis-ease or traumatic memories including those that have passed down the ancestral line. Such work may need to be under the guidance of a practitioner as it may create catharsis. Smoky Spirit Quartz can be used to stabilise and purify areas of environmental imbalance or pollution no matter what the cause. Snakeskin Agate Chakras: base and sacral With its serpent symbolism, placed on the lower chakras, this stone activates kundalini rise and instigates rebirth. One of the stones of invisibility and a natural shape shifter, Snakeskin helps you to blend in and travel without being seen in both the physical and spiritual worlds and is a useful accompaniment for soul retrieval in the lower realms. It can also lend you the cunning of a serpent in handling devious situations. It is an excellent stone when you need to ‘shed a skin’, clearing negativity and the past. Starseed Quartz Star Seed is reputed to be the perfect crystal for galactic and interdimensional communication. It is also said to put you in close touch with the ancient civilisation of Lemuria. Peppered with indentations that look like a star map, Starseed assists in 44 discovering which star your spirit is associated with. Like an etched crystal, Starseed can be read to rediscover ancient knowledge and your purpose in incarnating. It carries Green Tara energy and can take you to a Shamballah-like state that carries exception clarity and goes to pure form. It connects and realigns to the blueprint that informs the etheric blueprint. Used in conjunction with Sugar Blade Quartz it activates the unmanifest, bringing heart and soul into unity. Star Hollandite Inclusion Quartz Chakras: balances all Star Hollandite brings a depth and stillness to meditation that takes you into the oneness of all things. It is an excellent stone if you want to stimulate contact with the stars, star beings, star lore or universal wisdom. This stone can take you back to view the origins of ancient Egypt and the intervention of the star people in its development. Stibnite Chakra: base, sacral, soma, solar plexus Stibnite carries the energy of wolf, facilitating journeying with this shamanic power animal. In meditation, Stibnite forms an energetic shield around the physical body and is an excellent stone for separating out the pure from the dross, and for releasing entity possession or negative energy. This stone works brilliantly to help you to see the gold in your own centre, and to find the gift in difficult experiences. Assisting in eliminating ‘tentacles’ from clingy relationships that penetrate the auric or physical bodies, especially after physical separation, it can be helpful in tie cutting rituals and past life releases. Stibnite is particularly useful in situations where you find it difficult to say no to a former partner – although, having tie cut, when you next hold Stibnite it may stimulate a situation that tests out that the cutting is complete. Sugar Blade Quartz Chakra: soma Sugar Blade Quartz is the stone for extraterrestrial and star contact, encouraging space ship landings if gridded around a site. If you wish to share the teachings of our neighbours in the universe, or to know which star you hail from, this crystal takes you to a place of communication and connection. If you wish to 45 know about your own true self, place Sugar Blade Quartz on the soma chakra. It will help you attune to the breadth your core spiritual identity and reflect this out to the world. Sugar Blade Quartz carries the life force energy and a hologram of your multidimensional bodies. It aligns to and engages with the ‘I am’ principle and can assist in choosing a life direction, showing which door to open. Sugilte Sugilite teaches how to live from one’s truth and reminds the soul of its reasons for incarnating. It accompanies moving into past lives or the between life state to retrieve the cause of dis-ease. This stone finds answers to all the great questions of life such as “Why am I here?”, “Where did I come from?” “Who am I?” and “What else do I need to understand?” It is a useful accompaniment to spiritual quests of all kinds. This loving stone protects the soul from shocks and disappointments and relieves spiritual tension. It helps sensitive people and light workers adapt to the earth vibration without becoming mired or despondent. It can help to bring light and love into the darkest situations. Super 7 Chakras: harmonizes all Zodiac sign: unites all Reported to have the highest vibration of any crystal yet found, radiant Super 7 is a spiritual powerhouse with exceptional clarity. Shifting the vibratory level of the planet and everything upon it, this stone can be programmed to bring about a radiant future. Many pieces of Super 7 carry a spiritual being within them that links to the highest sources of guidance and inspiration. Never requiring cleansing or reenergising, it supports and heightens the vibration of any other crystal in its vicinity. This stone purifies, balances and energises all the chakras and the auric bodies, aligning them to the most refined spiritual vibrations. Points can be used to pull stagnant energy out of the body, or to grid areas of disturbed earth or community energy. Tangerine Quartz Tangerine Quartz (naturally coated transparent orange) is an excellent stone to use after shock or trauma, especially at the soul level. It can be used for soul retrieval and integration, and to heal after psychic attack. Tangerine Quartz can be 46 used in past life healing and is beneficial where the soul feels it has made a mistake for which it must pay. The soul learns to find the gift in the experience Tanzanite Chakra: all, especially crown and higher crown to base, throat With a high vibration that facilitates altered states of consciousness, inner and outer journeying, metaphysical abilities and profoundly deep meditation, Tanzanite links to the angelic realms, spirit guides, Ascended Masters and Christ consciousness. Facilitating living consciously in the now, Tanzanite opens subtle chakras on the aura to access the next level of spiritual evolution. Downloading information from the Akashic Record, combined with Iolite and Danburite, Tanzanite brings about multidimensional cellular healing. Tanzine Aura Quartz Chakra: higher crown, opens and aligns all. A mystical new Aura Quartz alchemicalised from Indium, a rare metal that falls at the centre of the periodic table, Tanzanite brings about multidimensional balance. Opening and aligning the highest crown chakras way above the subtle bodes, this delicate crystal draws cosmic energy into the physical body and to earth. It has a powerful regulatory effect on the pituitary, hypothalamus and pineal glands bringing about profound spiritual interconnection and physical equilibrium. Tree Agate Chakra: higher heart T his stone assists in making a powerful connection to the nurturing energy of nature and nature spirits, restoring and reviving vitality and perseverance, and enhancing rapport with living things. Tourmaline Chakra: depends on colour Tourmaline cleanses, purifies and transforms dense energy into a lighter vibration. It grounds spiritual energy, clears and balances all the chakras, and forms a protective shield around the body and affords protection during rituals. Natural Tourmaline wands are useful healing tools. They clear the aura, remove blockages, disperse negative energy and point to solutions for specific problems. They are 47 excellent for balancing and connecting the chakras. At a physical level, they rebalance the meridians. Tourmaline has a strong affinity with the devic energies and is extremely beneficial for the garden and plants. Turquoise Turquoise is a most efficient healer, providing solace for the spirit and well being for the body. It is a protective stone and has been used for amulets since time began. Turquoise promotes spiritual attunement and enhances communication with the physical and spiritual worlds. Placed on the third eye, it enhances intuition and meditation. On the throat chakra, it releases old vows, inhibitions and prohibitions, and allows the soul to express itself once more. It explores past lives and shows how the creation of our ‘fate’ is ongoing and depends on what we do at each moment. Turquoise is a purification stone. It dispels negative energy and clears electromagnetic smog, providing protection against pollutants in the environment. It balances and aligns all the chakras with the subtle bodies and attunes the physical level to the spiritual. In traditional thought, Turquoise unites the earth and the sky, bringing together male and female energies. Vanadinite Vanadinite is an excellent stone for people who have problems accepting their physicality. It has a strong connection with the earth chakra beneath the feet. Grounding the soul into the physical body and assisting in being comfortable in the earth environment, Vanadinite guards against squandering energy and teaches how to conserve energy at the physical level. Shutting off mind chatter, it can facilitate a state of ‘no mind’ or be used to consciously direct awareness for psychic vision and journeying. It has the power to open an internal channel within the body to receive an inflooding of universal energy. This energy aligns the chakras and brings the higher self into the physical body, facilitating a deep inner peace. Vera Cruz Amethyst Chakra: all, especially third eye and crown or higher crown. Vera Cruz Amethyst is said to instantly take you into a beta brainwave state, facilitating meditation, trance and spiritual journeying and enhancing divination skills. It is a powerful tool for shamanic working at high levels, facilitating accessing 48 the vibratory planes where souls meet and merge in oneness. The type of Amethyst can bring about profound interdimensional cellular healing. Vivianite Chakra: earth, crown, third eye, soma Vibrant Vivianite is a useful auric cleanser as, with its strong drawing power, it sucks out excess stimulation and negative energy replacing it with peace and calm. It reverses the spin of the crown chakra if required, bringing in a base note and connecting to the subtle body of the earth. This stone is the perfect adjunct to healing visualisations and to ritual working at a distance as it brings the souls together and enhances the effect. Vivianite also works with the third eye also to sharpen intuition and to act as a guide when travelling through the multidimensional planes of reality. Vivianite’s sparkling planes assist with dreamwork, drawing you back into the dream to find a deeper understanding and to rework the dream creatively to provide healing and insight. Wavellite Chakra: past life, soma, heart, higher heart, solar plexus Wavellite is an excellent stone for emotional healing and for clearing the effects of trauma or abuse from the emotional body, whether from the present or previous lives. It facilitates deep soul healing and provides an overview of situations and attitudes that lead to dis-ease, reprogramming cellular memory. This stone assists in maintaining health and wellbeing. Said to be at its most effective at the new moon, Wavellite can be used as a meditation tool at this time to access deep core issues and to intuitively know the way forward. If you need an overview of a situation before making a move, hold Wavellite, which will also assist you to manage challenging situations with ease. White Spirit Quartz Chakra: Crown, cleanses all Spirit Quartz is an exceedingly spiritual stone that embodies all the energetic properties of Quartz. This uplifting stone radiates high vibration energy out in all directions whilst the core crystal tightly focuses healing that reaches multidimensions and reprograms cellular memory. Carrying the gifts of the spirit and enhancing metaphysical abilities, Spirit Quartz assists at death guiding the soul 49 through different dimensions of the afterlife to the highest possible vibration and into the hands of those who are waiting to welcome it home. It provides comfort to those who are left behind, and is excellent for obtaining an overview of any situation. Spirit Quartz can take you to meet the spirits of your ancestors and those of the planet, and can be programmed for ancestral healing. Encouraging insightful dreams, it is helpful in dream and metaphysical work, especially for reframing the past. Carrying the vibration of universal love, this crystal is extremely beneficial in past life healing as it rejigs the etheric blueprint for the present life. Pinpointing significant karmic connections and the gift or karmic justice in traumatic situations, it promotes self-forgiveness. A stone of non-duality that perfectly balances and blends male and female, yin and yang, Spirit Quartz facilitates the transition between different types brain waves, facilitating combination states, and stimulating heightened awareness and psychic perception. Group orientated, Spirit Quartz is particularly useful for those who give service, especially as part of an organisation, as it synthesizes group efforts and can be programmed to bring about productive harmony within members. Facilitating spiritual or healing groups, it provides insights into problems experienced within a community or a family, and can be programmed to alleviate these. Spirit Quartz cleanses other stones and enhances their energy in a healing layout. It stabilises earth energies. Wulfenite At a spiritual level, Wulfenite facilitates moving easily and quickly from the physical level to the psychic, intuitive or spiritual levels. It is said to access the past, present and future and to aid communication with those states. It facilitates contact and communication with the spiritual world, opening a channel to bring spiritual vibrations down to earth. If you have made an agreement with another soul that you will meet up in the present life, Wulfenite facilitates recognition of that soul and attunement to the reasons why you arranged to meet. It bonds the souls together whilst the purpose or lesson is carried out and then releases when appropriate.Wulfenite is a stone which can be used for white magic, supporting and enhancing ritual working and journeying, and regaining magical knowledge which one had in other lives. This knowledge can then be put into practice in the present. Such knowledge may come from the temples of ancient Egypt or Greece or from the more recent past. If someone has suffered at the hands of the orthodox church for 50 beliefs connected with magic, then Wulfenite helps to heal the experience, making it feel safe to practice once again. Yellow Phantom Quartz Chakra: Third eye, crown, past life and solar plexus Yellow Phantom assists the mind to recall and reorganise memories and thought patterns. This Phantom efficiently removes mental attachments created in this life or any other. Youngite Chakra: solar plexus, heart Youngite accesses different plane of consciousness, taking you to a space without thought where souls meet and merge. From this space it links to other planes of existence touching supraconsciousness and all that it offers. Excellent for inner child work, Youngite reconnects to the joyous, innocent child that lies within everyone and the creative power that child offers. Healing wounds from childhood, Youngite is useful in soul retrieval and reintegration work as it gently coaxes back childish soul fragments that split off through joy or trauma

 

 

 

Reference: Judy Hall text judyhall.co.uk

Merkaba and quartz, perfect combination of peace.

Pendulums are great tools for self realization and communication with one’s Higher Self. The geometric shape of the Merkaba is a star tetrahedron. There are three of these superimposed on each other making a trinity. It is a vehicle that not only takes spirit and body from one dimension to another it can also create reality. It gives us an expanded awareness of who we are by connecting us with higher levels of consciousness. In other words it plugs us back in so we wake up and remember our true nature!

The Ancient Egyptians believed The Merkaba was a counter-rotating field of light that affects spirit and body simultaneously.

It is believed to be a vehicle that can take spirit and body, or one’s interpretation of reality, from one world or dimension into another. That it can also create reality as well as move through realities. It is seen as an inter-dimensional vehicle that can aid humanity to return to their original higher states of consciousness. Linking the mind, heart and body. The Merkaba balances and revives the activities between the two sides of our brain. Such training strengthens our sensitivities and mental abilities. At this time we use only 5 to 10% of our brain. The Merkaba assists us in our spiritual growth. The Merkaba enables us to feel unconditional love thus healing ourselves as well as others. It gives us the possibility of creating any kind of harmonious reality we desire. The Merkaba can be “programmed” to do anything, the only drawback being our own beliefs.

Rose quartz is pink quartz that is often called the “Love Stone.” It is a stone of unconditional love that opens the heart chakra to all forms of love: self-love, family love, platonic love, and romantic love.

The high energy of quartz gives rose quartz the property of enhancing love in virtually any situation. In turn, this lowers stress. All in all it is a very soothing and happy stone.

Emotionally rose quartz brings gentleness, forgiveness, compassion, kindness and tolerance.

It raises one’s self-esteem and sense of self-worth. It helps balance emotions and heal emotional wounds and traumas, even grief, bringing peace and calm. Rose quartz removes fears, resentments and anger. It can also heal and release childhood traumas, neglect, and lack of love, in part by enhancing inner awareness. It can help with reconciliation with family and others. Overwhelming or unreasonable guilt is eased by rose quartz.

In the psychic and spiritual realms, rose quartz is often used to attract love, and for love spells. It is also used to ease the process of transition in dying. Rose quartz can be helpful for dream recall and dream work.

Physically rose quartz is used in crystal healing to benefit the heart, the circulatory system, fertility, headaches, kidney disease, migraines, sexual dysfunction, sinus problems, throat problems, depression,

addictions, ear aches, slowing signs of aging, reducing wrinkles, spleen problems, fibromyalgia, and reaching one’s ideal weight / weight loss. Rose quartz is also helpful and protective during pregnancy and with childbirth. It is also sometimes said that rose quartz is helpful for supporting brain functions and increasing intellect.

Rose quartz is associated with the heart chakra.

Pink/rose quartz and amethyst quartz powers

Rose quartz is often called the “Love Stone.”

Its energetic hallmark is that of unconditional love that opens the heart chakra. This makes rose quartz a stone for every type of love: self-love, family, platonic, romantic, and unconditional. As a variety of quartz, rose quartz has high energy, and this strong energy can enhance love in virtually any situation. This stone of unconditional love that opens the heart chakra to all forms of love: self-love, family love, platonic love, and romantic love. The high energy of quartz gives rose quartz the property of enhancing love in virtually any situation. Bringing love in to life and daily situations not only brings inner warmth, but it also lowers stress and soothes those around it. Rose quartz is a very happy and loving stone. In the psychic and spiritual realms, rose quartz is often used to attract love, for love spells and charms. It is also used to ease the process of transition in dying to make the transition gentle and surrounded by the unconditional love of the Divine. Rose quartz can also be helpful for dream recall and dream work. Rose quartz is used to raise self-esteem and a strong sense of self-worth. Its loving energies teach us to apply this love to ourselves and thereby find ourselves more worthy. Emotionally, rose quartz is used to balance emotions and bring peace and calm. This calm emotional balance brings stress relief and easing of anxiety. All these things carry energies of forgiveness, tolerance, and compassion to the fore, enabling us to see the good in both ourselves and others.

Rose quartz is used in crystal healing to heal and release emotional wounds and traumas

even original childhood or sexual traumas. Fear, resentments, and anger can be removed. Trauma from abuse, neglect, and lack of love can be ameliorated, by bringing in Divine unconditional love and enhancing our inner awareness of such. This also brings ease of overwhelming or unreasonable guilt, bringing healing from this which we impose on ourselves. Rose quartz is a lovely family stone. With its energies of peace and love, it can ease reconciliation with family or others. This can be useful in any group situation, transforming difficulty to cooperation. Physically rose quartz is used in crystal healing to benefit the heart, the circulatory system, fertility, headaches, kidney disease, migraines, sexual dysfunction, sinus problems, acne, throat problems, depression, addictions, ear aches, slowing signs of aging, reducing wrinkles, spleen problems, fibromyalgia, and reaching one’s ideal weight or weight loss. Rose quartz is used for lung problems and others in the heart chakra area. Rose quartz is also helpful and protective during pregnancy and with childbirth. It is also sometimes said that rose quartz is helpful for supporting brain functions and increasing intellect. Rose quartz is primarily associated with the heart chakra. 

Amethyst is a meditative and calming stone which works in the emotional, spiritual, and physical planes to provide calm, balance, patience, and peace.

Amethyst is used as beneficial when dealing with legal problems and money issues, which can lead to prosperity and abundance, though it is not the best known prosperity stone. In the psychic and spiritual realms, amethyst is an excellent all-purpose stone that can increase spirituality and enhance intuition and psychic powers of all kinds. It does this by making a clear connection between the earth plane and other planes and worlds. Amethyst is also excellent for meditation and lucid dreaming. It is used to open one’s channels to telepathy, past life regression, clairaudience, clairvoyance, and communication with angels. Amethyst also protects against psychic attacks, especially during spiritual work.

Amethyst is not only a psychic protection stone, but is also used to protect one from thieves, and to protect travelers.

Emotionally, amethyst is used in crystal healing to help heal personal losses and grief, bringing one gently past. Amethyst has a gently sedative energy that can promote peacefulness, happiness, and contentment.

It also is said to bring emotional stability and inner strength. This stability and strength not only helps one hold firm in one’s life, but it can enhance flexibility and cooperation. To be flexible at need is a sure sign of strength. Amethyst is very well known — as from the ancients — as a sobriety stone. It has been used for millennia to prevent drunkenness, and is used to assist in getting rid of addictions to alcohol, drugs, smoking, etc, and destructive compulsive behaviors of all kinds. Physically amethyst is said by spiritual healers and mystical lore to heal the withdrawal symptoms of any sort of addiction, help with headaches, insomnia, arthritis, diabetes, pain relief, circulatory system issues, endocrine system problems, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, immune system deficiencies, asthma, phobias, pregnancy and preventing miscarriage, menopause, PMS, and general healing.

Rose quartz powers! natural healing with crystals

The Magical Crystal : Pink Rose Quartz Stone.

The quintessential stone of love, Rose Quartz has such loving and sweet energy. It would be perfect to place by your bed to bring peace to your dreams while you sleep!

Rose Quartz is the pink variety of quartz. It is found on every continent and its hardness is 7. The largest deposits come from Brazil, but much good material can also be found right here in the good old USA in South Dakota. The color of Rose Quartz color ranges from nearly white to a deep reddish pink. Clusters of crystals are very rare.

Love is not only the word, but also the emotion that vibrates most closely to Rose Quartz. In fact, Rose Quartz is the stone for the enhancement of love in all its forms, be it love for the self, for humanity, or for our lovely Mother Earth!
Rose Quartz is emotionally soothing and supportive. It vibrates in synch with the Heart Chakra, helping to heal pain and emotional trauma from old wounds. Its energy is soft and feminine and easily helps to relieve and release stresses as well as fears and anxiety.

Rose Quartz can help you to overcome negative feelings and replace them with positive, loving ones that help you to open to love on all levels.

Yoga origins and history, peace of mind and natural health

Yoga  is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.

 

There is a broad variety of Yoga schools, practices, and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Among the most well-known types of yoga are Hatha yoga and Rāja yoga.

The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions, it is mentioned in the Rigveda, but most likely developed around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, in ancient India’s ascetic and śramaṇa movements. The chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Hindu Upanishads and Buddhist Pāli Canon, but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra.

Yoga gurus from India later introduced yoga to the west, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century. In the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.

Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma, and heart disease.

Etymology

In Vedic Sanskrit, yoga  means “to add”, “to join”, “to unite”, or “to attach” in its most common literal sense. By figurative extension from the yoking or harnessing of oxen or horses, the word took on broader meanings such as “employment, use, application, performance” . All further developments of the sense of this word are post-Vedic. More prosaic moods such as “exertion”, “endeavour”, “zeal”, and “diligence” are also found in Indian epic poetry.

There are very many compound words containing yoga in Sanskrit. Yoga can take on meanings such as “connection”, “contact”, “union”, “method”, “application”, “addition” and “performance”. In simpler words, Yoga also means “combined”. For example, guṇáyoga means “contact with a cord”; chakráyoga has a medical sense of “applying a splint or similar instrument by means of pulleys “; chandráyoga has the astronomical sense of “conjunction of the moon with a constellation”; puṃyoga is a grammatical term expressing “connection or relation with a man”, etc. Thus, bhaktiyoga means “devoted attachment” in the monotheistic Bhakti movement. The term kriyāyoga has a grammatical sense, meaning “connection with a verb”. But the same compound is also given a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras, designating the “practical” aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the “union with the supreme” due to performance of duties in everyday life

According to Pāṇini, a 6th-century BCE Sanskrit grammarian, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga  or yuj samādhau . In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi .

According to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga  or yuj samādhau . Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi  or yogini .

Goals

The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha, although the exact definition of what form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated.

According to Jacobsen, “Yoga has five principal meanings:

According to David Gordon White, from the 5th century CE onward, the core principles of “yoga” were more or less in place, and variations of these principles developed in various forms over time:

# Yoga, is a meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation; illustration of this principle is found in Hindu texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and Yogasutras, in a number of Buddhist Mahāyāna works, as well as Jain texts;

# Yoga, as the raising and expansion of consciousness from oneself to being coextensive with everyone and everything; these are discussed in sources such as in Hinduism Vedic literature and its Epic Mahābhārata, Jainism Praśamaratiprakarana, and Buddhist Nikaya texts;

# Yoga, as a path to omniscience and enlightened consciousness enabling one to comprehend the impermanent  and permanent  reality; examples are found in Hinduism Nyaya and Vaisesika school texts as well as Buddhism Mādhyamaka texts, but in different ways;

# Yoga, as a technique for entering into other bodies, generating multiple bodies, and the attainment of other supernatural accomplishments; these are, states White, described in Tantric literature of Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as the Buddhist Sāmaññaphalasutta; James Mallinson, however, disagrees and suggests that such fringe practices are far removed from the mainstream Yoga’s goal as meditation-driven means to liberation in Indian religions.

White clarifies that the last principle relates to legendary goals of “yogi practice”, different from practical goals of “yoga practice,” as they are viewed in South Asian thought and practice since the beginning of the Common Era, in the various Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain philosophical schools.

Schools

The term “yoga” has been applied to a variety of practices and methods, including Jain and Buddhist practices. In Hinduism these include Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Karma Yoga, Laya Yoga and Hatha Yoga.

The so-called Raja Yoga refers to Ashtanga Yoga, the eight limbs to be practiced to attain samadhi, as described in the Yoga Sutras of Pantajali. The term raja yoga originally referred to the ultimate goal of yoga, which is usually samadhi, but was popularised by Vivekananda as the common name for Ashtanga Yoga.

Hinduism

Classical yoga

Yoga is considered as a philosophical school in Hinduism. Yoga, in this context, is one of the six āstika schools of Hinduism .

Due to the influence of Vivekananda, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are nowadays considered as the foundational scripture of classical yoga, a status which it only acquired in the 20th century. Before the twentieth century, other works were considered as the most central works, such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Vasistha, while Tantric Yoga and Hatha Yoga prevailed over Ashtanga Yoga.

Ashtanga yoga

Yoga as described in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali refers to Ashtanga yoga. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is considered as a central text of the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy, It is often called “Rāja yoga”, “yoga of the kings,” a term which originally referred to the ultimate, royal goal of yoga, which is usually samadhi, but was popularised by Vivekananda as the common name for Ashtanga Yoga.

Ashtanga yoga incorporates epistemology, metaphysics, ethical practices, systematic exercises and self-development techniques for body, mind and spirit. the Yoga school of Hinduism accepts the concept of a “personal, yet essentially inactive, deity” or “personal god”. Along with its epistemology and metaphysical foundations, the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy incorporates ethical precepts  and an introspective way of life focused on perfecting one’s self physically, mentally and spiritually, with the ultimate goal being kaivalya .

Hatha yoga

Hatha yoga, also called hatha vidyā, is a kind of yoga focusing on physical and mental strength building exercises and postures described primarily in three texts of Hinduism:

# Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Svātmārāma

# Shiva Samhita, author unknown

# Gheranda Samhita by Gheranda

Many scholars also include the preceding Goraksha Samhita authored by Gorakshanath of the 11th century in the above list.

Vajrayana Buddhism, founded by the Indian Mahasiddhas, has a series of asanas and pranayamas, such as tummo  See also ‘tantra’ below.

Buddhism

Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that aim to develop mindfulness, concentration, supramundane powers, tranquility, and insight.

Core techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts and have proliferated and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward Enlightenment and Nirvana. The closest words for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism are bhāvanā and jhāna/dhyāna.

Jainism

Jain meditation has been the central practice of spirituality in Jainism along with the Three Jewels. Meditation in Jainism aims at realizing the self, attain salvation, take the soul to complete freedom. It aims to reach and to remain in the pure state of soul which is believed to be pure conscious, beyond any attachment or aversion. The practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer . Jain meditation can be broadly categorized to the auspicious Dharmya Dhyana and Shukla Dhyana and inauspicious Artta and Raudra Dhyana.

Tantra

Samuel states that Tantrism is a contested concept. Tantra yoga may be described, according to Samuel, as practices in 9th to 10th century Buddhist and Hindu  texts, which included yogic practices with elaborate deity visualizations using geometrical arrays and drawings, fierce male and particularly female deities, transgressive life stage related rituals, extensive use of chakras and mantras, and sexual techniques, all aimed to help one’s health, long life and liberation.

History

The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization  and pre-Vedic Eastern India, the Vedic period, and the śramaṇa movement. According to Gavin Flood, continuities may exist between those various traditions:

Pre-philosophical speculations of yoga begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE. Between 200 BCE–500 CE philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga began to emerge. The Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Yoga came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid 19th century along with other topics of Indian philosophy.

Pre-Vedic India

Yoga may have pre-Vedic elements. Some state yoga originated in the Indus Valley Civilization. Marshall, Eliade According to Geoffrey Samuel, “Our best evidence to date suggests that  practices developed in the same ascetic circles as the early sramana movements, probably in around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE.”

According to Zimmer, Yoga philosophy is reckoned to be part of the non-Vedic system, which also includes the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, Jainism and Buddhism: ” does not derive from Brahman-Aryan sources, but reflects the cosmology and anthropology of a much older pre-Aryan upper class of northeastern India  – being rooted in the same subsoil of archaic metaphysical speculation as Yoga, Sankhya, and Buddhism, the other non-Vedic Indian systems.”

Textual references

The first use of the root of word “yoga” is in hymn 5.81.1 of the Rig Veda, a dedication to rising Sun-god in the morning, where it has been interpreted as “yoke” or “yogically control”.

Rigveda, however, does not describe yoga and there is little evidence as to what the practices were.

Vedic ascetic practices

Ascetic practices, concentration and bodily postures used by Vedic priests to conduct yajna, might have been precursors to yoga. Vratya, a group of ascetics mentioned in the Atharvaveda, emphasized on bodily postures which may have evolved into yogic asanas. Techniques for controlling breath and vital energies are mentioned in the Brahmanas  and the Atharvaveda. Nasadiya Sukta of the Rig Veda suggests the presence of an early contemplative tradition.

Preclassical era

Yoga concepts begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE such as the Pali Canon, the middle Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata.

Upanishads

The first known appearance of the word “yoga”, with the same meaning as the modern term, is in the Katha Upanishad, where it is defined as the steady control of the senses, which along with cessation of mental activity, leading to a supreme state. It is the earliest literary work that highlights the fundamentals of yoga. White states:

The hymns in Book 2 of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, another late first millennium BCE text, states a procedure in which the body is held in upright posture, the breath is restrained and mind is meditatively focussed, preferably inside a cave or a place that is simple, plain, of silence or gently flowing water, with no noises nor harsh winds.

In addition to the Yoga discussion in above Principal Upanishads, twenty Yoga Upanishads as well as related texts such as Yoga Vasistha, composed in 1st and 2nd millennium CE, discuss Yoga methods.

Sutras of Hindu philosophies

Yoga is discussed in the ancient foundational Sutras of Hindu philosophy. The Vaiśeṣika Sūtra of the Vaisheshika school of Hinduism, dated to have been composed sometime between 6th and 2nd century BCE discusses Yoga. According to Johannes Bronkhorst, an Indologist known for his studies on early Buddhism and Hinduism and a professor at the University of Lausanne, Vaiśeṣika Sūtra describes Yoga as “a state where the mind resides only in the soul and therefore not in the senses”.

Similarly, Brahma sutras – the foundational text of the Vedanta school of Hinduism, discusses yoga in its sutra 2.1.3, 2.1.223 and others. and its sutras assert that yoga is a means to gain “subtlety of body” and other powers. The Nyaya sutras – the foundational text of the Nyaya school, variously estimated to have been composed between the 6th-century BCE and 2nd-century CE, discusses yoga in sutras 4.2.38–50. This ancient text of the Nyaya school includes a discussion of yogic ethics, dhyana, samadhi, and among other things remarks that debate and philosophy is a form of yoga.

Macedonian historical texts

Alexander the Great reached India in the 4th century BCE. Along with his army, he took Greek academics with him who later wrote memoirs about geography, people and customs they saw. One of Alexander’s companion was Onesicritus, quoted in Book 15, Sections 63–65 by Strabo, who describes yogins of India. Onesicritus claims those Indian yogins  practiced aloofness and “different postures – standing or sitting or lying naked – and motionless”.

Onesicritus also mentions his colleague Calanus trying to meet them, who is initially denied audience, but later invited because he was sent by a “king curious of wisdom and philosophy”. He notes: Early known Buddhist sources like the Majjhima Nikāya mention meditation, while the Anguttara Nikāya describes Jhāyins  that resemble early Hindu descriptions of Muni, Kesins and meditating ascetics, but these meditation-practices are not called yoga in these texts. The earliest known specific discussion of yoga in the Buddhist literature, as understood in modern context, is from the third- to fourth-century CE scriptures of the Buddhist Yogācāra school and fourth- to fifth-century Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa.

A yoga system that predated the Buddhist school is Jain yoga. But since Jain sources postdate Buddhist ones, it is difficult to distinguish between the nature of the early Jain school and elements derived from other schools.

The early Buddhist texts describe meditative practices and states, some of which the Buddha borrowed from the śramaṇa tradition. The Pali canon contains three passages in which the Buddha describes pressing the tongue against the palate for the purposes of controlling hunger or the mind, depending on the passage. However, there is no mention of the tongue being inserted into the nasopharynx as in true khecarī mudrā. The Buddha used a posture where pressure is put on the perineum with the heel, similar to even modern postures used to stimulate Kundalini.

Uncertainty with chronology

Alexander Wynne, author of The Origin of Buddhist Meditation, observes that formless meditation and elemental meditation might have originated in the Upanishadic tradition. The earliest reference to meditation is in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads.

Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita, uses the term “yoga” extensively in a variety of ways. In addition to an entire chapter  dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation, it introduces three prominent types of yoga:

Karma yoga: The yoga of action.

Bhakti yoga: The yoga of devotion.

The Gita consists of 18 chapters and 700 shlokas, Some scholars divide the Gita into three sections, with the first six chapters with 280 shlokas dealing with Karma yoga, the middle six containing 209 shlokas with Bhakti yoga, and the last six chapters with 211 shlokas as Jnana yoga; however, this is rough because elements of karma, bhakti and jnana are found in all chapters.

Mahabharata

Description of an early form of yoga called nirodhayoga  is contained in the Mokshadharma section of the 12th chapter  of the Mahabharata. The verses of the section are dated to c. 300–200 BCE. Nirodhayoga emphasizes progressive withdrawal from the contents of empirical consciousness such as thoughts, sensations etc. until purusha  is realized. Terms like vichara, viveka  and others which are similar to Patanjali’s terminology are mentioned, but not described. There is no uniform goal of yoga mentioned in the Mahabharata. Separation of self from matter, perceiving Brahman everywhere, entering into Brahman etc. are all described as goals of yoga. Samkhya and yoga are conflated together and some verses describe them as being identical.

Mahabharata defines the purpose of yoga as the experience of uniting the individual ātman with the universal Brahman that pervades all things.

Classical era

This period witnessed many texts of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism discussing and systematically compiling yoga methods and practices. Of these, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras are considered as a key work.

Classical yoga

During the period between the Mauryan and the Gupta era  philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga began to emerge.

Samkhya

Many traditions in India began to adopt systematic methodology by about first century CE. Of these, Samkhya was probably one of the oldest philosophies to begin taking a systematic form. Patanjali systematized Yoga, building them on the foundational metaphysics of Samkhya. In the early works, the Yoga principles appear together with the Samkhya ideas. Vyasa’s commentary on the Yoga Sutras, also called the Samkhyapravacanabhasya, describes the relation between the two systems. The two schools have some differences as well. Yoga accepted the conception of “personal god”, while Samkhya developed as a rationalist, non-theistic/atheistic system of Hindu philosophy. Sometimes Patanjali’s system is referred to as Seshvara Samkhya in contradistinction to Kapila’s Nirivara Samkhya.

The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that “the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord.”

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

In Hindu philosophy, yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox  philosophical schools. Karel Werner, author of Yoga And Indian Philosophy, believes that the process of systematization of yoga which began in the middle and Yoga Upanishads culminated with the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

There are numerous parallels in the concepts in ancient Samkhya, Yoga and Abhidharma Buddhist schools of thought, particularly from 2nd century BCE to 1st century AD, notes Larson. Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras is a synthesis of these three traditions. From Samkhya, Yoga Sutras adopt the “reflective discernment”  of prakrti and purusa, its metaphysical rationalism, as well its three epistemic methods to gaining reliable knowledge. The verses of Yoga Sutras are terse. Many later Indian scholars studied them and published their commentaries, such as the Vyasa Bhashya . Patanjali’s yoga is also referred to as Raja yoga. Patanjali defines the word “yoga” in his second sutra:

– Yoga Sutras 1.2

This terse definition hinges on the meaning of three Sanskrit terms. I. K. Taimni translates it as “Yoga is the inhibition  of the modifications  of the mind “. Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as “Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff  from taking various forms .” Edwin Bryant explains that, to Patanjali, “Yoga essentially consists of meditative practices culminating in attaining a state of consciousness free from all modes of active or discursive thought, and of eventually attaining a state where consciousness is unaware of any object external to itself, that is, is only aware of its own nature as consciousness unmixed with any other object.”

If the meaning of yoga is understood as the practice of nirodha, then its goal is “the unqualified state of niruddha “, according to Baba Hari Dass. In that context, “yoga  implies duality ; the result of yoga is the nondual state”, and “as the union of the lower self and higher Self. The nondual state is characterized by the absence of individuality; it can be described as eternal peace, pure love, Self-realization, or liberation.”

Patanjali’s writing also became the basis for a system referred to as “Ashtanga Yoga” . This eight-limbed concept is derived from the 29th Sutra of the Book 2 of Yoga Sutras. They are:

# Yama : Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, and Aparigraha . Santosha, Tapas, Svādhyāya, and Ishvara-Pranidhana . Yoga disputes the monism of Advaita Vedanta.

Yoga Yajnavalkya

The Yoga Yajnavalkya is a classical treatise on yoga attributed to the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya. It takes the form of a dialogue between Yajnavalkya and Gargi, a renowned philosopher. The text contains 12 chapters and its origin has been traced to the period between the second century BCE and fourth century CE. Many yoga texts like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Yoga Kundalini and the Yoga Tattva Upanishads have borrowed verses from or make frequent references to the Yoga Yajnavalkya. The Yoga Yajnavalkya discusses eight yoga Asanas – Swastika, Gomukha, Padma, Vira, Simha, Bhadra, Mukta and Mayura, numerous breathing exercises for body cleansing, and meditation.

Jainism

According to Tattvarthasutra, 2nd century CE Jain text, yoga is the sum of all the activities of mind, speech and body. as well as one of the essentials—samyak caritra—in the path to liberation. Acarya Haribhadra and Acarya Hemacandra mention the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion. The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear a resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating a history of strong cross-fertilization between these traditions.

Mainstream Hinduism’s influence on Jain yoga is noticed as Haribhadra founded his eightfold yoga and aligned it with Patanjali’s eightfold yoga.

Yogacara school

In the late phase of Indian antiquity, on the eve of the development of Classical Hinduism, the

Yogacara movement arises during the Gupta period .

Yogacara received the name as it provided a “yoga,” a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva. The yogacara sect teaches “yoga” as a way to reach enlightenment.

Middle Ages

Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Hatha yoga emerged in this period.

Bhakti movement

The Bhakti movement was a development in medieval Hinduism which advocated the concept of a personal God . The movement was initiated by the Alvars of South India in the 6th to 9th centuries, and it started gaining influence throughout India by the 12th to 15th centuries. Shaiva and Vaishnava bhakti traditions integrated aspects of Yoga Sutras, such as the practical meditative exercises, with devotion. Bhagavata Purana elucidates the practice of a form of yoga called viraha  bhakti. Viraha bhakti emphasizes one pointed concentration on Krishna.

Tantra

Tantra is a genre of yoga that arose in India no later than the 5th century CE. George Samuel states, “Tantra” is a contested term, but may be considered as a school whose practices appeared in mostly complete form in Buddhist and Hindu texts by about 10th century CE. Over its history, some ideas of Tantra school influenced the Hindu, Bon, Buddhist, and Jain traditions. Elements of Tantric yoga rituals were adopted by and influenced state functions in medieval Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms in East and Southeast Asia.

By the turn of the first millennium, hatha yoga emerged from tantra. They were later translated into Chinese and other Asian languages, helping spread ideas of Tantric Buddhism. The Buddhist text Hevajra Tantra and Caryāgiti introduced hierarchies of chakras. Yoga is a significant practice in Tantric Buddhism.

Hatha Yoga

The earliest references to hatha yoga are in Buddhist works dating from the eighth century. The earliest definition of hatha yoga is found in the 11th century Buddhist text Vimalaprabha, which defines it in relation to the center channel, bindu etc. Hatha yoga synthesizes elements of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras with posture and breathing exercises. It marks the development of asanas  into the full body ‘postures’ now in popular usage and, along with its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word yoga today.

Sikhism

Various yogic groups had become prominent in Punjab in the 15th and 16th century, when Sikhism was in its nascent stage. Compositions of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, describe many dialogues he had with Jogis, a Hindu community which practiced yoga. Guru Nanak rejected the austerities, rites and rituals connected with Hatha Yoga. He propounded the path of Sahaja yoga or Nama yoga  instead. The Guru Granth Sahib states:

Modern history

Reception in the West

Yoga came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid-19th century along with other topics of Indian philosophy. In the context of this budding interest, N. C. Paul published his Treatise on Yoga Philosophy in 1851.

The first Hindu teacher to actively advocate and disseminate aspects of yoga to a western audience, Swami Vivekananda, toured Europe and the United States in the 1890s. The reception which Swami Vivekananda received built on the active interest of intellectuals, in particular the New England Transcendentalists, among them R. W. Emerson, who drew on German Romanticism and the interest of philosophers and scholars like G.W.F. Hegel, the brothers August Wilhelm Schlegel  and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Max Mueller, Arthur Schopenhauer  and others who had  interests in things Indian.

Theosophists also had a large influence on the American public’s view of Yoga. Esoteric views current at the end of the 19th century provided a further basis for the reception of Vedanta and of Yoga with its theory and practice of correspondence between the spiritual and the physical. The reception of Yoga and of Vedanta thus entwined with each other and with the  currents of religious and philosophical reform and transformation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. M. Eliade, himself rooted in the Romanian currents of these traditions, brought a new element into the reception of Yoga with the strong emphasis on Tantric Yoga in his seminal book: Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. With the introduction of the Tantra traditions and philosophy of Yoga, the conception of the “transcendent” to be attained by Yogic practice shifted from experiencing the “transcendent”  in the mind to the body itself.

The American born yogi by the name of Pierre Arnold Bernard, after his travels through the lands of Kashmir and Bengal, founded the Tantrik Order of America in 1905. His teachings gave many westerners their first glimpse into the practices of yoga and tantra.

The modern scientific study of yoga began with the works of N. C. Paul and Major D. Basu in the late 19th century, and then continued in the 20th century with Sri Yogendra  and Swami Kuvalayananda. Western medical researchers came to Swami Kuvalayananda’s Kaivalyadhama Health and Yoga Research Center, starting in 1928, to study Yoga as a science.

The West, in the early 21st century typically associates the term “yoga” with Hatha yoga and its asanas  or as a form of exercise. During the 1910s and 1920s in the USA, yoga suffered a period of bad publicity due largely to the backlash against immigration, a rise in puritanical values, and a number of scandals. In the 1930s and 1940s yoga began to gain more public acceptance as a result of celebrity endorsement. In the 1950s the United States saw another period of paranoia against yoga,

Teachers of Hatha yoga who were active in the west in this period included B.K.S. Iyengar, K. Pattabhi Jois, Swami Vishnu-devananda, and Swami Satchidananda . Yogi Bhajan brought Kundalini Yoga to the United States in 1969. Comprehensive, classical teachings of Ashtanga Yoga, Samkhya, the subtle body theory, Fitness Asanas, and tantric elements were included in the yoga teachers training by Baba Hari Dass, in the United States and Canada.

A second “yoga boom” followed in the 1980s, as Dean Ornish, a follower of Swami Satchidananda, connected yoga to heart health, legitimizing yoga as a purely physical system of health exercises outside of counter-culture or esotericism circles, and unconnected to any religious denomination.

Since 2001, the popularity of yoga in the USA has risen constantly. The number of people who practiced some form of yoga has grown from 4 million  to 20 million . It has drawn support from world leaders such as Barack Obama who stated, “Yoga has become a universal language of spiritual exercise in the United States, crossing many lines of religion and cultures,… Every day, millions of people practice yoga to improve their health and overall well-being. That’s why we’re encouraging everyone to take part in PALA, so show your support for yoga and answer the challenge”.

The American College of Sports Medicine supports the integration of yoga into the exercise regimens of healthy individuals as long as properly-trained professionals deliver instruction. The College cites yoga’s promotion of “profound mental, physical and spiritual awareness” and its benefits as a form of stretching, and as an enhancer of breath control and of core strength.

Exercise and health applications

Yoga has been studied and is increasingly recommended to promote relaxation, reduce stress and some medical conditions such as premenstrual syndrome in Europe as well as in the United States.

In 2015 the Australian Government’s Department of Health published the results of a review of alternative therapies that sought to determine if any were suitable for being covered by health insurance; Yoga was one of 17 practices evaluated for which no clear evidence of effectiveness was found, with the caveat that “Reviewers were limited in drawing definite conclusions, not only due to a lack of studies for some clinical conditions, but also due to the lack of information reported in the reviews and potentially in the primary studies.”

While the practice of yoga continues to rise in contemporary American culture, sufficient and adequate knowledge of the practice’s origins does not. According to Andrea R. Jain, Yoga is being marketed as a supplement to a cardio routine with health benefits, but in Hinduism it is more than exercise and incorporates meditation with spiritual benefits.

Potential benefits for adults

While much of the medical community regards the results of yoga research as significant, others point to many flaws which undermine results. Much of the research on yoga has taken the form of preliminary studies or clinical trials of low methodological quality, including small sample sizes, inadequate blinding, lack of randomization, and high risk of bias. Long-term yoga users in the United States have reported musculoskeletal and mental health improvements, as well as reduced symptoms of asthma in asthmatics. There is evidence to suggest that regular yoga practice increases brain GABA levels, and yoga has been shown to improve mood and anxiety more than some other metabolically-matched exercises, such as walking. The three main focuses of Hatha yoga  make it beneficial to those suffering from heart disease. Overall, studies of the effects of yoga on heart disease suggest that yoga may reduce high blood-pressure, improve symptoms of heart failure, enhance cardiac rehabilitation, and lower cardiovascular risk factors. For chronic low back pain, specialist Yoga for Healthy Lower Backs has been found 30% more beneficial than usual care alone in a UK clinical trial. Other smaller studies support this finding. The Yoga for Healthy Lower Backs programme is the dominant treatment for society  due to 8.5 fewer days off work each year. A research group from Boston University School of Medicine also tested yoga’s effects on lower-back pain. Over twelve weeks, one group of volunteers practiced yoga while the control group continued with standard treatment for back pain. The reported pain for yoga participants decreased by one third, while the standard treatment group had only a five percent drop. Yoga participants also had a drop of 80% in the use of pain medication.

There has been an emergence of studies investigating yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer patients. Yoga is used for treatment of cancer patients to decrease depression, insomnia, pain, and fatigue and to increase anxiety control. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction  programs include yoga as a mind-body technique to reduce stress. A study found that after seven weeks the group treated with yoga reported significantly less mood disturbance and reduced stress compared to the control group. Another study found that MBSR had showed positive effects on sleep anxiety, quality of life, and spiritual growth in cancer patients.

Yoga has also been studied as a treatment for schizophrenia. Some encouraging, but inconclusive, evidence suggests that yoga as a complementary treatment may help alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia and improve health-related quality of life.

Yoga has been shown in a study to have some cognitive functioning  acute benefit.

A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found no evidence that yoga was effective for metabolic syndrome.

Physical injuries

A small percentage of yoga practitioners each year suffer physical injuries analogous to sports injuries; Yoga has been criticized for being potentially dangerous and being a cause for a range of serious medical conditions including thoracic outlet syndrome, degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine, spinal stenosis, retinal tears, damage to the common fibular nerve, “Yoga foot drop,” etc. An exposé of these problems by William Broad published in January, 2012 in The New York Times Magazine resulted in controversy within the international yoga community. Broad, a science writer, yoga practitioner, and author of The Science of Yoga: The Risks and the Rewards, had suffered a back injury while performing a yoga posture. Torn muscles, knee injuries, and headaches are common ailments which may result from yoga practice.

An extensive survey of yoga practitioners in Australia showed that about 20% had suffered some physical injury while practicing yoga. In the previous 12 months 4.6% of the respondents had suffered an injury producing prolonged pain or requiring medical treatment. Headstands, shoulder stands, lotus and half lotus, forward bends, backward bends, and handstands produced the greatest number of injuries.

Some yoga practitioners do not recommend certain yoga exercises for women during menstruation, for pregnant women, or for nursing mothers. However, meditation, breathing exercises, and certain postures which are safe and beneficial for women in these categories are encouraged.

Among the main reasons that experts cite for causing negative effects from yoga are beginners’ competitiveness and instructors’ lack of qualification. As the demand for yoga classes grows, many people get certified to become yoga instructors, often with relatively little training. Not every newly certified instructor can evaluate the condition of every new trainee in their class and recommend refraining from doing certain poses or using appropriate props to avoid injuries. In turn, a beginning yoga student can overestimate the abilities of their body and strive to do advanced poses before their body is flexible or strong enough to perform them.

Acetabular labral tears, damage to the structure joining the femur and the hip, have been reported to have resulted from yoga practice.

Pediatrics

It is claimed that yoga can be an excellent training for children and adolescents, both as a form of physical exercise and for breathing, focus, mindfulness, and stress relief: many school districts have considered incorporating yoga into their P.E. programs. The Encinitas, California school district gained a San Diego Superior Court Judge’s approval to use yoga in P.E., holding against the parents who claimed the practice was intrinsically religious and hence should not be part of a state funded program.

Physiology

Over time, an extended yoga physiology developed, especially within the tantric tradition and hatha yoga. It pictures humans as composed of three bodies or five sheaths which cover the atman. The three bodies are described within the Mandukya Upanishad, which adds a fourth state, turiya, while the five sheaths  are described in the Taittiriya Upanishad. They are often integrated:

# Sthula sarira, the Gross body, comprising the Annamaya Kosha

Within the subtle body energy flows through the nadis or channels, and is concentrated within the chakras.

Yoga and specialized meditation

Zen Buddhism

Zen, the name of which derives from the Sanskrit “dhyāna” via the Chinese “ch’an” is a form of Mahayana Buddhism. The Mahayana school of Buddhism is noted for its proximity with yoga. In the west, Zen is often set alongside yoga; the two schools of meditation display obvious family resemblances. This segregation deserves attention because yogic practices integrally exist within the Zen Buddhist school. Certain essential elements of yoga are important both for Buddhism in general and for Zen in particular. The last six are described as “yoga yanas”: “Kriya yoga”, “Upa yoga,” “Yoga yana,” “Mahā yoga,” “Anu yoga” and the ultimate practice, “Ati yoga.” The Sarma traditions also include Kriya, Upa, and Yoga, with the Anuttara yoga class substituting for Mahayoga and Atiyoga.

Other tantra yoga practices include a system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm. The Nyingma tradition also practices Yantra yoga, a discipline that includes breath work, meditative contemplation and precise dynamic movements to centre the practitioner. The body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama’s summer temple of Lukhang. A semi-popular account of Tibetan yoga by Chang  refers to caṇḍalī, the generation of heat in one’s own body, as being “the very foundation of the whole of Tibetan yoga.” Chang also claims that Tibetan yoga involves reconciliation of apparent polarities, such as prana and mind, relating this to theoretical implications of tantrism.

Reception in other religions

Christianity

Some Christians integrate yoga and other aspects of Eastern spirituality with prayer and meditation. This has been attributed to a desire to experience God in a more complete way. In 2013, Monsignor Raffaello Martinelli, servicing Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, having worked for over 23 years with Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, said that for his Meditation, a Christian can learn from other religious traditions, quoting Aspects of Christian meditation: “Just as “the Catholic Church rejects nothing of what is true and holy in these religions,” neither should these ways be rejected out of hand simply because they are not Christian. On the contrary, one can take from them what is useful so long as the Christian conception of prayer, its logic and requirements are never obscured. It is within the context of all of this that these bits and pieces should be taken up and expressed anew.” Previously, the Roman Catholic Church, and some other Christian organizations have expressed concerns and disapproval with respect to some eastern and New Age practices that include yoga and meditation.

In 1989 and 2003, the Vatican issued two documents: Aspects of Christian meditation and “A Christian reflection on the New Age,” that were mostly critical of eastern and New Age practices. The 2003 document was published as a 90-page handbook detailing the Vatican’s position. The Vatican warned that concentration on the physical aspects of meditation “can degenerate into a cult of the body” and that equating bodily states with mysticism “could also lead to psychic disturbance and, at times, to moral deviations.” Such has been compared to the early days of Christianity, when the church opposed the gnostics’ belief that salvation came not through faith but through a mystical inner knowledge. but maintains the idea that “there must be some fit between the nature of  prayer and Christian beliefs about ultimate reality.”

Another view holds that Christian meditation can lead to religious pluralism. This is held by an interdenominational association of Christians that practice it. “The ritual simultaneously operates as an anchor that maintains, enhances, and promotes denominational activity and a sail that allows institutional boundaries to be crossed.”

Islam

In early 11th century, the Persian scholar Al Biruni visited India, lived with Hindus for 16 years, and with their help translated several significant Sanskrit works into Arabic and Persian languages. One of these was Patanjali’s Yogasutras. Al Biruni’s translation preserved many of the core themes of Patañjali ‘s Yoga philosophy, but certain sutras and analytical commentaries were restated making it more consistent with Islamic monotheistic theology. Al Biruni’s version of Yoga Sutras reached Persia and Arabian peninsula by about 1050 AD. Later, in the 16th century, the hath yoga text Amritakunda was translated into Arabic and then Persian. Yoga was, however, not accepted by mainstream Sunni and Shia Islam. Minority Islamic sects such as the mystic Sufi movement, particularly in South Asia, adopted Indian yoga practises, including postures and breath control. Muhammad Ghawth, a Shattari Sufi and one of the translators of yoga text in 16th century, drew controversy for his interest in yoga and was persecuted for his Sufi beliefs.

Malaysia’s top Islamic body in 2008 passed a fatwa, prohibiting Muslims from practicing yoga, saying it had elements of Hinduism and that its practice was blasphemy, therefore haraam. Some Muslims in Malaysia who had been practicing yoga for years, criticized the decision as “insulting.” Sisters in Islam, a women’s rights group in Malaysia, also expressed disappointment and said yoga was just a form of exercise. This fatwa is legally enforceable. However, Malaysia’s prime minister clarified that yoga as physical exercise is permissible, but the chanting of religious mantras is prohibited.

In 2009, the Council of Ulemas, an Islamic body in Indonesia, passed a fatwa banning yoga on the grounds that it contains Hindu elements. These fatwas have, in turn, been criticized by Darul Uloom Deoband, a Deobandi Islamic seminary in India. Similar fatwas banning yoga, for its link to Hinduism, were issued by the Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa in Egypt in 2004, and by Islamic clerics in Singapore earlier.

In Iran, as of May 2014, according to its Yoga Association, there were approximately 200 yoga centres in the country, a quarter of them in the capital Tehran, where groups can often be seen practising in parks. This has been met by opposition among conservatives. In May 2009, Turkey’s head of the Directorate of Religious Affairs, Ali Bardakoğlu, discounted personal development techniques such as reiki and yoga as commercial ventures that could lead to extremism. His comments were made in the context of reiki and yoga possibly being a form of proselytization at the expense of Islam.

International Day of Yoga

On 11 December 2014, The 193-member United Nations General Assembly approved by consensus, a resolution establishing 21 June as ‘International Day of Yoga’.

The declaration of this day came after the call for the adoption of 21 June as International Day of Yoga by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his address to UN General Assembly on 27 September 2014. In suggesting 21 June, which is one of the two solstices, as the International Day of Yoga, Narendra Modi had said that the date is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and has special significance in many parts of the world.

The first International Day of Yoga was observed world over on 21 June 2015. About 35000 people, including Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and a large number of dignitaries, performed 21 Yoga asanas  for 35 minutes at Rajpath in New Delhi. The day devoted to Yoga was observed by millions across the world.

The event at Rajpath established two Guinness records – largest Yoga Class with 35985 people and the record for the most nationalities participating in it- eighty four.

See also

Yoga physiology

List of asanas

List of yoga schools

Yoga series

Yogis

Notes

References

Sources

Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of “The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.”

Worthington, Vivian . . Routledge. ISBN 0-7100-9258-X.

Wynne, Alexander  Routledge, 2007, ISBN 1-134-09741-7.

Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell.

Zydenbos, Robert. Jainism Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p. 66

Mindfulness: the key to happiness. Health and balance: quick tips

Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one’s attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment, which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training. The term “mindfulness” is a translation of the Pali-term sati, which is a significant element of some Buddhist traditions. The recent popularity of mindfulness in the West is generally considered to have been initiated by Jon Kabat-Zinn.

Large population-based research studies have indicated that the practice of mindfulness is strongly correlated with well-being and perceived health. Studies have also shown that rumination and worry contribute to mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety, and that mindfulness-based interventions are effective in the reduction of both rumination and worry.

Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people who are experiencing a variety of psychological conditions. reducing stress, anxiety, Recent studies demonstrate that mindfulness meditation significantly attenuates pain through multiple, unique mechanisms. It has gained worldwide popularity as a distinctive method to handle emotions.

Clinical studies have documented both physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children. Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adapted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.

Meditation

Mindfulness meditation is practiced sitting with eyes closed, cross-legged on a cushion, or on a chair, with the back straight. Attention is put on the movement of the abdomen when breathing in and out, or on the awareness of the breath as it goes in and out the nostrils. If one becomes distracted from the breath, one passively notices one’s mind has wandered, but in an accepting, non-judgmental way and one returns to focusing on breathing. A famous exercise, introduced by Kabat-Zinn in his MBSR-program, is the mindful tasting of a raisin, in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully.

Meditators start with short periods of 10 minutes or so of meditation practice per day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing. Research on the neural perspective of how mindfulness meditation works suggests that it exerts its effects in components of attention regulation, body awareness and emotional regulation. When considering aspects such as sense of responsibility, authenticity, compassion, self-acceptance and character, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation contributes to a more coherent and healthy sense of self and identity. Neuroimaging techniques suggest that mindfulness practices such as mindfulness meditation are associated with “changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network and default mode network structures.” Further, mindfulness-induced emotional and behavioral changes have been found to be related to functional and structural changes in the brain.

Translations and definitions

Buddhism  

Mindfulness meditation can be defined in many ways and can be used for a variety of different therapies. When defining mindfulness meditation, it is useful to draw upon Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology.

Sati and smṛti

The Buddhist term translated into English as “mindfulness” originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. According to Robert Sharf, the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion. Smṛti originally meant “to remember,” “to recollect,” “to bear in mind,” as in the Vedic tradition of remembering the sacred texts. The term sati also means “to remember.” In the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta the term sati means to remember the dharmas, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen. Sharf refers to the Milindapañha, which explained that the arisement of sati calls to mind the wholesome dhammas such as the four establishings of mindfulness, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven awakening-factors, the noble eight-factored path, and the attainment of insight. According to Rupert Gethin,

Sharf further notes that this has little to do with “bare attention,” the popular contemporary interpretation of sati, “since it entails, among other things, the proper discrimination of the moral valence of phenomena as they arise.”

Translation

The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids  first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in sammā-sati “Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind”. Noting that Daniel John Gogerly  initially rendered sammā-sati as “Correct meditation“, Davids explained,

Alternate translations

John D. Dunne asserts that the translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish “retention” as the preferred alternative.

Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of “sati” as “memory”. The terms sati/smriti have also been translated as:

Attention

Awareness

Concentrated attention

Inspection

Mindful attention

Self-recollection

Recollecting mindfulness

Recollection

Secondary consciousness

Retention

Presence  Dav Panesar

Remindfulness

Psychology

A.M. Haynes and G. Feldman have highlighted that mindfulness can be seen as a strategy that stands in contrast to a strategy of avoidance of emotion on the one hand and to the strategy of emotional overengagement on the other hand. Mindfulness can also be viewed as a means to develop wisdom. A distinction can also be made between the state of mindfulness and the trait of mindfulness.

According to David S. Black, whereas “mindfulness” originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and “a capacity attainable only by certain people”, scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness. Black mentions three possible domains:

# A trait, a dispositional characteristic, a person’s tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states;

# A state, an outcome, being in a state of present-moment awareness;

# A practice .

Trait-like constructs

According to Brown, mindfulness is

Seven mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs:

Mindful Attention Awareness Scale

Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory

Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills

Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale

Mindfulness Questionnaire

Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale

Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale

State-like phenomenon

According to Bishop et al., mindfulness is

The Toronto Mindfulness Scale  measures mindfulness as a state-like phenomenon, that is evoked and maintained by regular practice.

Mindfulness-practice

Mindfulness as a practice is described as:

“Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices

“Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally” proposed a two-component model of mindfulness:

In this two-component model, self-regulated attention  “involves bringing awareness to current experience – observing and attending to the changing fields of “objects”, from moment to moment – by regulating the focus of attention”. Orientation to experience  involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state, but rather to just notice each object that arises in the stream of consciousness.

According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, mindfulness may also refer to “a state of being aware”. Synonyms for this “state of being aware” are wakefulness, attention, alertness, prudence, It leads to insight into the true nature of reality, namely the three marks of existence, the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self. With this insight, the practitioner becomes a socalled Sotāpanna, a “stream-enterer”, the first stage on the path to liberation. Vipassana is practiced in tandem with samatha, and also plays a central role in other Buddhist traditions such as Tibetan Buddhism.

According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way in early Buddhism to liberation, “constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths.” According to Vetter, dhyana may have been the original core practice of the Buddha, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness.

According to Rhys Davids, the doctrine of mindfulness is “perhaps the most important” after the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.

Transcendentalism

Kabat-Zinn himself refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with the other eminent Transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman:

The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were themselves influenced by Transcendentalism and other 19th-century manifestations of Western esotericism. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church, which in India collaborated with Ram Mohan Roy  and his Brahmo Samaj. He found that Unitarianism came closest to true Christianity, and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians. This influence worked through on Vivekananda, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west. Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention, which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the Buddhist sutras through English translations from the Pali Text Society. It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the Theosophical Society. Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings of D.T. Suzuki, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes.

Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR

In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction  program at the University of Massachusetts to treat the chronically ill. This program sparked the application of mindfulness ideas and practices in Medicine for the treatment of a variety of conditions in both healthy and unhealthy people. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.

Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern World, particularly from Buddhist traditions. One of MBSR’s techniques – the “body scan” – was derived from a meditation practice  of the Burmese U Ba Khin tradition, as taught by S. N. Goenka in his Vipassana retreats, which he began in 1976. It has since been widely adapted in secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts.

Popularization, “mindfulness movement”

Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology. and can be practiced outside a formal setting. The terminology used by scholars of religion, scientists, journalists, and popular media writers to describe this movement of mindfulness “popularization,” and the many new contexts of mindfulness practice which have cropped up, has regularly evolved over the past 20 years, with some criticisms arising.

Buddhism

Sati is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. “Correct” or “right” mindfulness  is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path.

Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a ‘power’  which contributes to the attainment of nirvana. This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion  have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.

Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassana

Anapanasati is mindfulness of breathing. “Sati” means mindfulness; “ānāpāna” refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The Anapanasati Sutta gives an exposition on this practice.

Satipaṭṭhāna is the establishment of mindfulness in one’s day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one’s body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom .

Vipassanā is insight into the true nature of reality, According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation.

Vipassanā-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Theravāda Buddhism meditation practices, which employs vipassanā and ānāpāna meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the Sutta.

Samprajaña, apramāda and atappa

In Buddhist practice, “mindfulness” also includes samprajaña, meaning “clear comprehension” and apramāda meaning “vigilance”. All three terms are sometimes  translated as “mindfulness”, but they all have specific shades of meaning.

In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan Wallace, Bodhi has described Ven. Nyanaponika Thera’s views on “right mindfulness” and sampajañña as follows:

“Bare attention”

Georges Dreyfus has expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as “bare attention” or “nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness”, stressing that mindfulness in Buddhist context means also “remembering”, which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information.

Therapy programs

Mindfulness-based stress reduction

Mindfulness-based stress reduction  is a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and yoga to help people become more mindful. In recent years, meditation has been the subject of controlled clinical research. This suggests it may have beneficial effects, including stress reduction, relaxation, and improvements to quality of life, but that it does not help prevent or cure disease. While MBSR has its roots in spiritual teachings, the program itself is secular.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy  is a psychological therapy designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with Major depressive disorder . It uses traditional cognitive behavioral therapy  methods and adds in newer psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression. Mindfulness and mindfulness meditation, focus on becoming aware of all incoming thoughts and feelings and accepting them, but not attaching or reacting to them.

Like CBT, MBCT functions on the theory that when individuals who have historically had depression become distressed, they return to automatic cognitive processes that can trigger a depressive episode. The goal of MBCT is to interrupt these automatic processes and teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming stimuli, and instead accepting and observing them without judgment.

Acceptance and commitment therapy

Acceptance and commitment therapy or   is a form of clinical behavior analysis  used in psychotherapy. It is an empirically based psychological intervention that uses acceptance and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. The approach was originally called comprehensive distancing. It was developed in the late 1980s by Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson, and Kirk Strosahl.

Dialectical behavior therapy

Mindfulness is a “core” exercise used in dialectical behavior therapy, a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with borderline personality disorder. DBT is dialectic, explains Linehan, in the sense of “the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis.” As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:

Mode deactivation therapy

Mode deactivation therapy  is a treatment methodology that is derived from the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and incorporates elements of Acceptance and commitment therapy, Dialectical behavior therapy, and mindfulness techniques. Mindfulness techniques such as simple breathing exercises are applied to assist the client in awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of unpleasant and distressing thoughts and feelings as they occur in the present moment. Mode Deactivation Therapy was developed and is established as an effective treatment for adolescents with problem behaviors and complex trauma-related psychological problems, according to recent publications by Jack A. Apsche and Joan Swart.

Other programs

Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain, stress, anxiety and depression, substance abuse, and recurrent suicidal behavior . Bell  gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly family therapy, starting with a discussion of mysticism and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.

Morita therapy

The Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita, who trained in Zen meditation, developed Morita therapy upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment. Since the beginnings of Gestalt therapy in the early 1940s, mindfulness, referred to as “awareness”, has been an essential part of its theory and practice.

Adaptation Practice

The British doctor Clive Sherlock developed Adaptation Practice in 1977. Adaptation Practice is a structured programme of self-discipline.

Hakomi therapy

Hakomi therapy, under development by Ron Kurtz and others, is a somatic psychology based upon Asian philosophical precepts of mindfulness and nonviolence.

IFS

Internal Family Systems Model, developed by Richard C. Schwartz, emphasizes the importance of both therapist and client engaging in therapy from the Self, which is the IFS term for one’s “spiritual center”. The Self is curious about whatever arises in one’s present experience and open and accepting toward all manifestations.

Mindfulness relaxation

Mindfulness relaxation uses breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.

Scientific research

Mindfulness has gained increasing empirical attention ever since 1970. According to a 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, evidence supports the use of mindfulness programs to alleviate symptoms of a variety of mental and physical disorders. and may also prevent or delay the onset of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.

Mindfulness proved to be effective also in enhancing people’s capacity to self-regulate.

Movement

Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology.

The mindfulness movement has entered the mainstream, mainly through the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn

Mindfulness has come to be seen as a mode of being,

MindUP, a classroom-based program spearheaded by Goldie Hawn’s Hawn Foundation, teaches students to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. For the last decade, MindUP has trained teachers in over 1,000 schools in cities from Arizona to Washington.

The Holistic Life Foundation, a non-profit organization that created an in-school mindfulness program called Mindful Moment, is currently serving almost 350 students daily at Robert W. Coleman Elementary School and approximately 1300 students at Patterson Park High School in Baltimore, Maryland. At Patterson High School, the Mindful Moment program engages the school’s faculty along with the students during a 15-minute mindfulness practice at the beginning and end of each school day.

Mindful Life Project, a non-profit 5013 based out of Richmond, California, teaches mindfulness to elementary school students in underserved schools in the South Richmond school district. Utilizing curriculum, “Rise-Up” is a regular school day intervention program serving 430 students weekly, while “Mindful Community” is currently implemented at six South Richmond partner schools. These in-school mindfulness programs have been endorsed by Richmond Mayor Gayle McLaughlin, who has recommended additional funding to expand the program in order to serve all Richmond youth.

A study enrolled college students in a course about mindfulness that included guided mindfulness meditation as part of the curriculum. After the semester, pre- and post-levels for different aspects of mental health were compared and students were found to have more non-judgmental stances towards their thoughts and feelings. This is believed to result better stress coping skills, improved academic performance and quality of life. Furthermore, scores continued to improve for the weeks following the end of the course, demonstrating the long-lasting effects of mindfulness meditation.

Business

Mindfulness training appears to be getting popular in the business world, and many large corporations have been incorporating practicing mindfulness into their culture. For example, companies such as Google, Apple, Procter & Gamble, General Mills, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Army offer mindfulness coaching, meditation breaks and other resources to their employees to improve workplace functioning. Mindfulness has been found to result in better employee well-being, lower levels of frustration, lower absenteeism and burnout as well as an improved overall work environment.

Law

Legal and law enforcement organizations are also showing interest in mindfulness:

Harvard Law School’s Program on Negotiation hosted a workshop on “Mindfulness in the Law & Alternative Dispute Resolution.”

Many law firms offer mindfulness classes. Additional studies indicate that mindfulness interventions can result in significant reductions in anger, reductions in substance use, increased relaxation capacity, self-regulation and optimism.

Government

Many government organizations offer mindfulness training. Coping Strategies is an example of a program utilized by United States Armed Forces personnel. The British Parliament organized a mindfulness-session for its members in 2014, led by Ruby Wax.

Criticism

Various scholars have criticized how mindfulness has been defined or represented in recent western psychology publications.

These modern understandings depart significantly from the accounts of mindfulness in early Buddhist texts and authoritative commentaries in the Theravada and Indian Mahayana traditions. Adam Valerio has introduced the idea that conflict between academic disciplines over how mindfulness is defined, understood, and popularly presented may be indicative of a personal, institutional, or paradigmatic battle for ownership over mindfulness, one where academics, researchers, and other writers are invested as individuals in much the same way as religious communities. According to Safran, the popularity of mindfulness is the result of a marketing strategy:

“McMindfulness is the marketing of a constructed dream; an idealized lifestyle; an identity makeover.”

According to Purser and Loy, mindfulness is not being used as a means to awaken to insight in the “unwholesome roots of greed, ill will and delusion,”

Risks

In media reports, people have attributed unexpected effects of increasing fear and anxiety panic or “meltdowns” after practicing, which could expose bipolar vulnerability or repressed PTSD symptoms. However, according to one editorial, “there is a paucity of robust research that specifically assesses whether Mindfulness Based Interventions can induce non-salutatory health outcomes”.

Related concepts

Choiceless awareness

Choiceless awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in the mid-20th century by Jiddu Krishnamurti, in whose philosophy it signifies a main theme. Similar or related concepts had been previously developed in several religious or spiritual traditions; the term or others like it has also been used to describe traditional and contemporary secular and religious meditation practices. However, Krishnamurti’s approach to Choiceless Awareness was unique, and differs from both pre-existing and later-developed notions.

Nonviolent communication

Nonviolent communication  is a communication process developed by Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s. NVC often functions as a conflict resolution process. It focuses on three aspects of communication: self-empathy, empathy, and honest self-expression .

NVC is based on the idea that all human beings have the capacity for compassion and only resort to violence or behavior that harms others when they don’t recognize more effective strategies for meeting needs. Habits of thinking and speaking that lead to the use of violence  are learned through culture. NVC theory supposes all human behavior stems from attempts to meet universal human needs and that these needs are never in conflict. Rather, conflict arises when strategies for meeting needs clash. NVC proposes that if people can identify their needs, the needs of others, and the feelings that surround these needs, harmony can be achieved.

While NVC is ostensibly taught as a process of communication designed to improve compassionate connection to others, it has also been interpreted as a spiritual practice, a set of values, a parenting technique, an educational method and a worldview.

See also

Alexander Technique

Buddhism and psychology

Buddhist meditation

Sampajanna

Satipatthana

Self-compassion

Dennis Lewis

Eternal Now

Henepola Gunaratana

John Garrie

Mahasati Meditation

Mahasi Sayadaw

Metacognition

Mindfulness

Mindfulness Day

Nepsis

Ovsiankina effect

Phronesis

Religious studies

S.N. Goenka

Sacca

Satya

Satyagraha

Samu

Shinzen Young

Taqwa and dhikr, related Islamic concepts

Thich Nhat Hanh

Tiny Buddha

Transcendental Meditation

Transcendentalism

Mindfulness and technology

Notes

References

Sources

Published sources

Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., et al. ., Clin Psychol Sci Prac 11:230–241.

Boccio, Frank Jude . Mindfulness Yoga: The Awakened Union of Breath, Body and Mind. ISBN 0-86171-335-4

Bowen, S., Chawla, N., Marlatt, G.A. . Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Addictive Behaviors: A Clinician’s Guide. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60623-987-2

Brahm, Ajahn . Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond: A Meditator’s Handbook. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-275-5

Brantley, Jeffrey . Calming Your Anxious Mind: How Mindfulness & Compassion Can Free You from Anxiety, Fear, & Panic. 2nd ed. New Harbinger. ISBN 978-1-57224-487-0.

Deckersbach, T., Hölzel, B., Eisner, L., Lazar, S.W., Nierenberg, A.A. . Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-1406-9

Germer, C.K. . The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion: Freeing Yourself from Destructive Thoughts and Emotions. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-59385-975-6

Germer, C.K., Siegel, R., Fulton, P.R., eds. . Mindfulness and Psychotherapy: Second Edition. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-1137-2

Germer, Christopher K., Ronald Siegel, Paul R. Fulton, Mindfulness and Psychotherapy, The Guilford Press, ISBN 1-59385-139-1

Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura, Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan’s “The Necklace of Clear Understanding” Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.

Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola . . Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0-86171-906-8

Hanh, Thich Nhat . The Miracle of Mindfulness: A Manual on Meditation. Beacon Press.

Hayes, S.C., Follette, V.M., Linehan, M.M., eds. . Mindfulness and Acceptance: Expanding the Cognitive-Behavioral Tradition. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60918-989-1

Hoopes, Aaron  “Zen Yoga: A Path to Enlightenment through Breathing, Movement and Meditation”. Kodansha International.

Kapleau, Phillip . The Three Pillars of Zen: Teaching, Practice and Enlightenment. Anchor Books.

Langer, Ellen J. . Mindfulness. Merloyd Lawrence.

Linehan, Marsha . Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford Press.

Marlatt, GA & Kristeller, J; Mindfulness and meditation. WR Miller, Integrating spirituality in treatment: Resources for practitioners, American Psychological Association Books, Washington, DC, pp. 67–84

Melemis, Steven M. . Make Room for Happiness: 12 Ways to Improve Your Life by Letting Go of Tension. Better Health, Self-Esteem and Relationships. Modern Therapies. ISBN 978-1-897572-17-7

Nemcova, M. and Hajek, K. . Introduction to Satitherapy – Mindfulness and Abhidhamma Principles in Person-Centered Integrative Psychotherapy. Morrisville, Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4092-5900-8

Orsillo, S.M., Roemer, L. . The Mindful Way through Anxiety: Break Free from Chronic Worry and Reclaim Your Life. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60623-464-8

Pollak, S.M., Pedulla, T., Siegel, R.D. . Sitting Together: Essential Skills for Mindfulness-Based Psychotherapy. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-1398-7

Segal, Z.V., Williams, J.M.G., Teasdale, J.D. . Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Second Edition. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-0750-4

Siegel, Daniel J. . The Mindful Brain: Reflection and Attunement in the Cultivation of Well-Being. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-70470-9.

Siegel, R.D. . The Mindfulness Solution: Everyday Practices for Everyday Problems. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-60623-294-1

Siegel, Ronald D. . . The Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60623-294-1

Teasdale, J.D., Williams, J.M.G., Segal, Z.V. . The Mindful Way Workbook: An 8-Week Program to Free Yourself from Depression and Emotional Distress. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-4625-0814-3

Weiss, Andrew . Beginning Mindfulness: Learning the Way of Awareness. New World Library

Williams, Mark, John Teasdale, Zindel Segal, and Jon Kabat-Zinn . The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-59385-128-6.

Williams, J.M.G., Teasdale, J.D., Segal, Z.V., Kabat-Zinn, J. . The Mindful Way through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press, ISBN 978-1-59385-128-6

Web-sources

Further reading

Practice

Buddhism

William Hart, The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation As Taught by S. N. Goenka, Pariyatti

Psychology

Amanda Ie, Christelle T. Ngnoumen, Ellen J. Langer, The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness, John Wiley & Sons

Popular

Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life. Hyperion Books, 2005. ISBN 1-4013-0778-7

History

Critical

Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Williams, Mark, Mindfulness – Diverse perspectives on its meanings, origins and applications

 

The science, physics and history of pendulums

A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. When a pendulum is displaced sideways from its resting, equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the restoring force combined with the pendulum’s mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth. The time for one complete cycle, a left swing and a right swing, is called the period. The period depends on the length of the pendulum and also to a slight degree on the amplitude, the width of the pendulum’s swing.

From the first scientific investigations of the pendulum around 1602 by Galileo Galilei, the regular motion of pendulums was used for timekeeping, and was the world’s most accurate timekeeping technology until the 1930s. The pendulum clock invented by Christian Huygens in 1658 became the world’s standard timekeeper, used in homes and offices for 270 years, and achieved accuracy of about one second per year before it was superseded as a time standard by quartz clocks in the 1930s. Pendulums are also used in scientific instruments such as accelerometers and seismometers. Historically they were used as gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity in geophysical surveys, and even as a standard of length. The word “pendulum” is new Latin, from the Latin pendulus, meaning ‘hanging’.

The simple gravity pendulum is an idealized mathematical model of a pendulum. This is a weight  on the end of a massless cord suspended from a pivot, without friction. When given an initial push, it will swing back and forth at a constant amplitude. Real pendulums are subject to friction and air drag, so the amplitude of their swings declines.

Period of oscillation

The period of swing of a simple gravity pendulum depends on its length, the local strength of gravity, and to a small extent on the maximum angle that the pendulum swings away from vertical, θ0, called the amplitude. It is independent of the mass of the bob.  If the amplitude is limited to small swings, the period T of a simple pendulum, the time taken for a complete cycle, is:

 

where L is the length of the pendulum and g is the local acceleration of gravity.

For small swings the period of swing is approximately the same for different size swings: that is, the period is independent of amplitude. This property, called isochronism, is the reason pendulums are so useful for timekeeping. Successive swings of the pendulum, even if changing in amplitude, take the same amount of time.

For larger amplitudes, the period increases gradually with amplitude so it is longer than given by equation . For example, at an amplitude of θ0   23° it is 1% larger than given by . The period increases asymptotically  as θ0 approaches 180°, because the value θ0   180° is an unstable equilibrium point for the pendulum. The true period of an ideal simple gravity pendulum can be written in several different forms  ), one example being the infinite series:

 

T   2\pi \sqrt \left

The difference between this true period and the period for small swings  above is called the circular error. In the case of a typical grandfather clock whose pendulum has a swing of 6° and thus an amplitude of 3°, the difference between the true period and the small angle approximation  amounts to about 15 seconds per day.

For small swings the pendulum approximates a harmonic oscillator, and its motion as a function of time, t, is approximately simple harmonic motion:

Compound pendulum

The length L used to calculate the period of the ideal simple pendulum in eq.  above is the distance from the pivot point to the center of mass of the bob. Any swinging rigid body free to rotate about a fixed horizontal axis is called a compound pendulum or physical pendulum. The appropriate equivalent length L for calculating the period of any such pendulum is the distance

from the pivot to the center of oscillation. This point is located under the center of mass at a distance from the

pivot traditionally called the radius of oscillation, which depends on the mass distribution of the pendulum. If most of the mass is concentrated in a relatively small bob compared to the pendulum length, the center of oscillation is close to the center of mass.

The radius of oscillation or equivalent length L of any physical pendulum can be shown to be

 

where I is the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the pivot point,

m is the mass of the pendulum, and R is the distance between the pivot point and the center of mass.

Substituting this expression in  above, the period T of a compound pendulum is given by

 

for sufficiently small oscillations.

A rigid uniform rod of length L pivoted about either end has moment of inertia I   mL2.

The center of mass is located at the center of the rod, so R   L/2. Substituting these values into the above equation gives T   2π. This shows that a rigid rod pendulum has the same period as a simple pendulum of 2/3 its length.

Christiaan Huygens proved in 1673 that the pivot point and the center of oscillation are interchangeable. This means if any pendulum is turned upside down and swung from a pivot located at its previous center of oscillation, it will have the same period as before and the new center of oscillation will be at the old pivot point. In 1817 Henry Kater used this idea to produce a type of reversible pendulum, now known as a Kater pendulum, for improved measurements of the acceleration due to gravity.

History

One of the earliest known uses of a pendulum was a 1st-century seismometer device of Han Dynasty Chinese scientist Zhang Heng. Its function was to sway and activate one of a series of levers after being disturbed by the tremor of an earthquake far away. Released by a lever, a small ball would fall out of the urn-shaped device into one of eight metal toad’s mouths below, at the eight points of the compass, signifying the direction the earthquake was located. claim that the 10th-century Egyptian astronomer Ibn Yunus used a pendulum for time measurement, but this was an error that originated in 1684 with the British historian Edward Bernard.

During the Renaissance, large pendulums were used as sources of power for manual reciprocating machines such as saws, bellows, and pumps. Leonardo da Vinci made many drawings of the motion of pendulums, though without realizing its value for timekeeping.

1602: Galileo’s research

Italian scientist Galileo Galilei was the first to study the properties of pendulums, beginning around 1602. The earliest extant report of his research is contained in a letter to Guido Ubaldo dal Monte, from Padua, dated November 29, 1602. His biographer and student, Vincenzo Viviani, claimed his interest had been sparked around 1582 by the swinging motion of a chandelier in the Pisa cathedral. Galileo discovered the crucial property that makes pendulums useful as timekeepers, called isochronism; the period of the pendulum is approximately independent of the amplitude or width of the swing. He also found that the period is independent of the mass of the bob, and proportional to the square root of the length of the pendulum. He first employed freeswinging pendulums in simple timing applications. His physician friend, Santorio Santorii, invented a device which measured a patient’s pulse by the length of a pendulum; the pulsilogium. The pendulum was the first harmonic oscillator used by man. This was a great improvement over existing mechanical clocks; their best accuracy was increased from around 15 minutes deviation a day to around 15 seconds a day. Pendulums spread over Europe as existing clocks were retrofitted with them.

The English scientist Robert Hooke studied the conical pendulum around 1666, consisting of a pendulum that is free to swing in two dimensions, with the bob rotating in a circle or ellipse. He used the motions of this device as a model to analyze the orbital motions of the planets. Hooke suggested to Isaac Newton in 1679 that the components of orbital motion consisted of inertial motion along a tangent direction plus an attractive motion in the radial direction. This played a part in Newton’s formulation of the law of universal gravitation. Robert Hooke was also responsible for suggesting as early as 1666 that the pendulum could be used to measure the force of gravity. In 1687, Isaac Newton in Principia Mathematica showed that this was because the Earth was not a true sphere but slightly oblate  from the effect of centrifugal force due to its rotation, causing gravity to increase with latitude. Portable pendulums began to be taken on voyages to distant lands, as precision gravimeters to measure the acceleration of gravity at different points on Earth, eventually resulting in accurate models of the shape of the Earth.

1673: Huygens’ Horologium Oscillatorium

In 1673, Christiaan Huygens published his theory of the pendulum, Horologium Oscillatorium sive de motu pendulorum. Marin Mersenne and René Descartes had discovered around 1636 that the pendulum was not quite isochronous; its period increased somewhat with its amplitude. Huygens analyzed this problem by determining what curve an object must follow to descend by gravity to the same point in the same time interval, regardless of starting point; the so-called tautochrone curve. By a complicated method that was an early use of calculus, he showed this curve was a cycloid, rather than the circular arc of a pendulum, confirming that the pendulum was not isochronous and Galileo’s observation of isochronism was accurate only for small swings. Huygens also solved the problem of how to calculate the period of an arbitrarily shaped pendulum, discovering the center of oscillation, and its interchangeability with the pivot point.

The existing clock movement, the verge escapement, made pendulums swing in very wide arcs of about 100°. Huygens showed this was a source of inaccuracy, causing the period to vary with amplitude changes caused by small unavoidable variations in the clock’s drive force. To make its period isochronous, Huygens mounted cycloidal-shaped metal ‘chops’ next to the pivots in his clocks, that constrained the suspension cord and forced the pendulum to follow a cycloid arc. This solution didn’t prove as practical as simply limiting the pendulum’s swing to small angles of a few degrees. The realization that only small swings were isochronous motivated the development of the anchor escapement around 1670, which reduced the pendulum swing in clocks to 4°–6°.

1721: Temperature compensated pendulums

During the 18th and 19th century, the pendulum clock’s role as the most accurate timekeeper motivated much practical research into improving pendulums. It was found that a major source of error was that the pendulum rod expanded and contracted with changes in ambient temperature, changing the period of swing. This was solved with the invention of temperature compensated pendulums, the mercury pendulum in 1721 and the gridiron pendulum in 1726, reducing errors in precision pendulum clocks to a few seconds per week. which used this principle, making possible very accurate measurements of gravity. For the next century the reversible pendulum was the standard method of measuring absolute gravitational acceleration.

1851: Foucault pendulum

In 1851, Jean Bernard Léon Foucault showed that the plane of oscillation of a pendulum, like a gyroscope, tends to stay constant regardless of the motion of the pivot, and that this could be used to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. He suspended a pendulum free to swing in two dimensions  from the dome of the Panthéon in Paris. The length of the cord was . Once the pendulum was set in motion, the plane of swing was observed to precess or rotate 360° clockwise in about 32 hours.

This was the first demonstration of the Earth’s rotation that didn’t depend on celestial observations, and a “pendulum mania” broke out, as Foucault pendulums were displayed in many cities and attracted large crowds.

1930: Decline in use

Around 1900 low-thermal-expansion materials began to be used for pendulum rods in the highest precision clocks and other instruments, first invar, a nickel steel alloy, and later fused quartz, which made temperature compensation trivial. Precision pendulums were housed in low pressure tanks, which kept the air pressure constant to prevent changes in the period due to changes in buoyancy of the pendulum due to changing atmospheric pressure.

The timekeeping accuracy of the pendulum was exceeded by the quartz crystal oscillator, invented in 1921, and quartz clocks, invented in 1927, replaced pendulum clocks as the world’s best timekeepers. Pendulum gravimeters were superseded by “free fall” gravimeters in the 1950s, but pendulum instruments continued to be used into the 1970s.

Use for time measurement

For 300 years, from its discovery around 1581 until development of the quartz clock in the 1930s, the pendulum was the world’s standard for accurate timekeeping. In addition to clock pendulums, freeswinging seconds pendulums were widely used as precision timers in scientific experiments in the 17th and 18th centuries. Pendulums require great mechanical stability: a length change of only 0.02%, 0.2 mm in a grandfather clock pendulum, will cause an error of a minute per week.

Clock pendulums

Pendulums in clocks  are usually made of a weight or bob  suspended by a rod of wood or metal . To reduce air resistance  the bob is traditionally a smooth disk with a lens-shaped cross section, although in antique clocks it often had carvings or decorations specific to the type of clock. In quality clocks the bob is made as heavy as the suspension can support and the movement can drive, since this improves the regulation of the clock . A common weight for seconds pendulum bobs is . Instead of hanging from a pivot, clock pendulums are usually supported by a short straight spring  of flexible metal ribbon. This avoids the friction and ‘play’ caused by a pivot, and the slight bending force of the spring merely adds to the pendulum’s restoring force. A few precision clocks have pivots of ‘knife’ blades resting on agate plates. The impulses to keep the pendulum swinging are provided by an arm hanging behind the pendulum called the crutch,, which ends in a fork,  whose prongs embrace the pendulum rod. The crutch is pushed back and forth by the clock’s escapement, .

Each time the pendulum swings through its centre position, it releases one tooth of the escape wheel . The force of the clock’s mainspring or a driving weight hanging from a pulley, transmitted through the clock’s gear train, causes the wheel to turn, and a tooth presses against one of the pallets, giving the pendulum a short push. The clock’s wheels, geared to the escape wheel, move forward a fixed amount with each pendulum swing, advancing the clock’s hands at a steady rate.

The pendulum always has a means of adjusting the period, usually by an adjustment nut  under the bob which moves it up or down on the rod. Moving the bob up decreases the pendulum’s length, causing the pendulum to swing faster and the clock to gain time. Some precision clocks have a small auxiliary adjustment weight on a threaded shaft on the bob, to allow finer adjustment. Some tower clocks and precision clocks use a tray attached near to the midpoint of the pendulum rod, to which small weights can be added or removed. This effectively shifts the centre of oscillation and allows the rate to be adjusted without stopping the clock.

The pendulum must be suspended from a rigid support. During operation, any elasticity will allow tiny imperceptible swaying motions of the support, which disturbs the clock’s period, resulting in error. Pendulum clocks should be attached firmly to a sturdy wall.

The most common pendulum length in quality clocks, which is always used in grandfather clocks, is the seconds pendulum, about long.  In mantel clocks, half-second pendulums, long, or shorter, are used. Only a few large tower clocks use longer pendulums, the 1.5 second pendulum, long, or occasionally the two-second pendulum,  which is used in Big Ben.

Temperature compensation

The largest source of error in early pendulums was slight changes in length due to thermal expansion and contraction of the pendulum rod with changes in ambient temperature. This was discovered when people noticed that pendulum clocks ran slower in summer, by as much as a minute per week . Thermal expansion of pendulum rods was first studied by Jean Picard in 1669. A pendulum with a steel rod will expand by about 11.3 parts per million  with each degree Celsius increase, causing it to lose about 0.27 seconds per day for every degree Celsius increase in temperature, or 9 seconds per day for a change. Wood rods expand less, losing only about 6 seconds per day for a change, which is why quality clocks often had wooden pendulum rods. The wood had to be varnished to prevent water vapor from getting in, because changes in humidity also affected the length.

Mercury pendulum

The first device to compensate for this error was the mercury pendulum, invented by George Graham To improve thermal accommodation several thin containers were often used, made of metal. Mercury pendulums were the standard used in precision regulator clocks into the 20th century.

Gridiron pendulum

The most widely used compensated pendulum was the gridiron pendulum, invented in 1726 by John Harrison. which achieved accuracy of 15 milliseconds per day. Suspension springs of Elinvar were used to eliminate temperature variation of the spring’s restoring force on the pendulum. Later fused quartz was used which had even lower CTE. These materials are the choice for modern high accuracy pendulums.

Atmospheric pressure

The effect of the surrounding air on a moving pendulum is complex and requires fluid mechanics to calculate precisely, but for most purposes its influence on the period can be accounted for by three effects:

By Archimedes’ principle the effective weight of the bob is reduced by the buoyancy of the air it displaces, while the mass  remains the same, reducing the pendulum’s acceleration during its swing and increasing the period. This depends on the air pressure and the density of the pendulum, but not its shape.

The pendulum carries an amount of air with it as it swings, and the mass of this air increases the inertia of the pendulum, again reducing the acceleration and increasing the period. This depends on both its density and shape.

Viscous air resistance slows the pendulum’s velocity. This has a negligible effect on the period, but dissipates energy, reducing the amplitude. This reduces the pendulum’s Q factor, requiring a stronger drive force from the clock’s mechanism to keep it moving, which causes increased disturbance to the period.

Increases in barometric pressure increase a pendulum’s period slightly due to the first two effects, by about 0.11 seconds per day per kilopascal . and by 1900 the highest precision clocks were mounted in tanks that were kept at a constant pressure to eliminate changes in atmospheric pressure. Alternatively, in some a small aneroid barometer mechanism attached to the pendulum compensated for this effect.

Gravity

Pendulums are affected by changes in gravitational acceleration, which varies by as much as 0.5% at different locations on Earth, so pendulum clocks have to be recalibrated after a move. Even moving a pendulum clock to the top of a tall building can cause it to lose measurable time from the reduction in gravity.

Accuracy of pendulums as timekeepers

The timekeeping elements in all clocks, which include pendulums, balance wheels, the quartz crystals used in quartz watches, and even the vibrating atoms in atomic clocks, are in physics called harmonic oscillators. The reason harmonic oscillators are used in clocks is that they vibrate or oscillate at a specific resonant frequency or period and resist oscillating at other rates. However, the resonant frequency is not infinitely ‘sharp’.  Around the resonant frequency there is a narrow natural band of frequencies, called the resonance width or bandwidth, where the harmonic oscillator will oscillate. In a clock, the actual frequency of the pendulum may vary randomly within this resonance width in response to disturbances, but at frequencies outside this band, the clock will not function at all.

Q factor

The measure of a harmonic oscillator’s resistance to disturbances to its oscillation period is a dimensionless parameter called the Q factor equal to the resonant frequency divided by the resonance width. The higher the Q, the smaller the resonance width, and the more constant the frequency or period of the oscillator for a given disturbance. The reciprocal of the Q is roughly proportional to the limiting accuracy achievable by a harmonic oscillator as a time standard.

The Q is related to how long it takes for the oscillations of an oscillator to die out. The Q of a pendulum can be measured by counting the number of oscillations it takes for the amplitude of the pendulum’s swing to decay to 1/e   36.8% of its initial swing, and multiplying by 2π.

In a clock, the pendulum must receive pushes from the clock’s movement to keep it swinging, to replace the energy the pendulum loses to friction. These pushes, applied by a mechanism called the escapement, are the main source of disturbance to the pendulum’s motion. The Q is equal to 2π times the energy stored in the pendulum, divided by the energy lost to friction during each oscillation period, which is the same as the energy added by the escapement each period. It can be seen that the smaller the fraction of the pendulum’s energy that is lost to friction, the less energy needs to be added, the less the disturbance from the escapement, the more ‘independent’ the pendulum is of the clock’s mechanism, and the more constant its period is. The Q of a pendulum is given by:

 

where M is the mass of the bob, ω   2π/T is the pendulum’s radian frequency of oscillation, and Γ is the frictional damping force on the pendulum per unit velocity.

ω is fixed by the pendulum’s period, and M is limited by the load capacity and rigidity of the suspension. So the Q of clock pendulums is increased by minimizing frictional losses . Precision pendulums are suspended on low friction pivots consisting of triangular shaped ‘knife’ edges resting on agate plates. Around 99% of the energy loss in a freeswinging pendulum is due to air friction, so mounting a pendulum in a vacuum tank can increase the Q, and thus the accuracy, by a factor of 100.

The Q of pendulums ranges from several thousand in an ordinary clock to several hundred thousand for precision regulator pendulums swinging in vacuum. A quality home pendulum clock might have a Q of 10,000 and an accuracy of 10 seconds per month. The most accurate commercially produced pendulum clock was the Shortt-Synchronome free pendulum clock, invented in 1921. Its Invar master pendulum swinging in a vacuum tank had a Q of 110,000 The most accurate escapements, such as the deadbeat, approximately satisfy this condition.

Gravity measurement

The presence of the acceleration of gravity g in the periodicity equation  for a pendulum means that the local gravitational acceleration of the Earth can be calculated from the period of a pendulum.  A pendulum can therefore be used as a gravimeter to measure the local gravity, which varies by over 0.5% across the surface of the Earth. The pendulum in a clock is disturbed by the pushes it receives from the clock movement, so freeswinging pendulums were used, and were the standard instruments of gravimetry up to the 1930s.

The difference between clock pendulums and gravimeter pendulums is that to measure gravity, the pendulum’s length as well as its period has to be measured. The period of freeswinging pendulums could be found to great precision by comparing their swing with a precision clock that had been adjusted to keep correct time by the passage of stars overhead. In the early measurements, a weight on a cord was suspended in front of the clock pendulum, and its length adjusted until the two pendulums swung in exact synchronism. Then the length of the cord was measured. From the length and the period, g could be calculated from equation .

The seconds pendulum

The seconds pendulum, a pendulum with a period of two seconds so each swing takes one second, was widely used to measure gravity, because most precision clocks had seconds pendulums.  By the late 17th century, the length of the seconds pendulum became the standard measure of the strength of gravitational acceleration at a location. By 1700 its length had been measured with submillimeter accuracy at several cities in Europe. For a seconds pendulum, g is proportional to its length:

 

Early observations

1620: British scientist Francis Bacon was one of the first to propose using a pendulum to measure gravity, suggesting taking one up a mountain to see if gravity varies with altitude.

1644: Even before the pendulum clock, French priest Marin Mersenne first determined the length of the seconds pendulum was, by comparing the swing of a pendulum to the time it took a weight to fall a measured distance.

1669: Jean Picard determined the length of the seconds pendulum at Paris, using a copper ball suspended by an aloe fiber, obtaining .

1672: The first observation that gravity varied at different points on Earth was made in 1672 by Jean Richer, who took a pendulum clock to Cayenne, French Guiana and found that it lost minutes per day; its seconds pendulum had to be shortened by lignes  shorter than at Paris, to keep correct time. In 1687 Isaac Newton in Principia Mathematica showed this was because the Earth had a slightly oblate shape  caused by the centrifugal force of its rotation, so gravity increased with latitude. He used a copper pendulum bob in the shape of a double pointed cone suspended by a thread; the bob could be reversed to eliminate the effects of nonuniform density. He calculated the length to the center of oscillation of thread and bob combined, instead of using the center of the bob. He corrected for thermal expansion of the measuring rod and barometric pressure, giving his results for a pendulum swinging in vacuum. Bouguer swung the same pendulum at three different elevations, from sea level to the top of the high Peruvian altiplano. Gravity should fall with the inverse square of the distance from the center of the Earth. Bouguer found that it fell off slower, and correctly attributed the ‘extra’ gravity to the gravitational field of the huge Peruvian plateau. From the density of rock samples he calculated an estimate of the effect of the altiplano on the pendulum, and comparing this with the gravity of the Earth was able to make the first rough estimate of the density of the Earth.

1747: Daniel Bernoulli showed how to correct for the lengthening of the period due to a finite angle of swing θ0 by using the first order correction θ02/16, giving the period of a pendulum with an extremely small swing. He compared his measurements to an estimate of the gravity at his location assuming the mountain wasn’t there, calculated from previous nearby pendulum measurements at sea level. His measurements showed ‘excess’ gravity, which he allocated to the effect of the mountain. Modeling the mountain as a segment of a sphere in diameter and high, from rock samples he calculated its gravitational field, and estimated the density of the Earth at 4.39 times that of water. Later recalculations by others gave values of 4.77 and 4.95, illustrating the uncertainties in these geographical methods.

Kater’s pendulum

The precision of the early gravity measurements above was limited by the difficulty of measuring the length of the pendulum, L . L was the length of an idealized simple gravity pendulum, which has all its mass concentrated in a point at the end of the cord. In 1673 Huygens had shown that the period of a real pendulum  was equal to the period of a simple pendulum with a length equal to the distance between the pivot point and a point called the center of oscillation, located under the center of gravity, that depends on the mass distribution along the pendulum. But there was no accurate way of determining the center of oscillation in a real pendulum.

To get around this problem, the early researchers above approximated an ideal simple pendulum as closely as possible by using a metal sphere suspended by a light wire or cord. If the wire was light enough, the center of oscillation was close to the center of gravity of the ball, at its geometric center. This “ball and wire” type of pendulum wasn’t very accurate, because it didn’t swing as a rigid body, and the elasticity of the wire caused its length to change slightly as the pendulum swung.

However Huygens had also proved that in any pendulum, the pivot point and the center of oscillation were interchangeable. representing a precision of gravity measurement of 7×10−6 . Kater’s measurement was used as Britain’s official standard of length  from 1824 to 1855.

Reversible pendulums  employing Kater’s principle were used for absolute gravity measurements into the 1930s.

Later pendulum gravimeters

The increased accuracy made possible by Kater’s pendulum helped make gravimetry a standard part of geodesy. Since the exact location  of the ‘station’ where the gravity measurement was made was necessary, gravity measurements became part of surveying, and pendulums were taken on the great geodetic surveys of the 18th century, particularly the Great Trigonometric Survey of India.

Invariable pendulums: Kater introduced the idea of relative gravity measurements, to supplement the absolute measurements made by a Kater’s pendulum. Comparing the gravity at two different points was an easier process than measuring it absolutely by the Kater method. All that was necessary was to time the period of an ordinary  pendulum at the first point, then transport the pendulum to the other point and time its period there. Since the pendulum’s length was constant, from  the ratio of the gravitational accelerations was equal to the inverse of the ratio of the periods squared, and no precision length measurements were necessary. So once the gravity had been measured absolutely at some central station, by the Kater or other accurate method, the gravity at other points could be found by swinging pendulums at the central station and then taking them to the nearby point. Kater made up a set of “invariable” pendulums, with only one knife edge pivot, which were taken to many countries after first being swung at a central station at Kew Observatory, UK.

Airy’s coal pit experiments: Starting in 1826, using methods similar to Bouguer, British astronomer George Airy attempted to determine the density of the Earth by pendulum gravity measurements at the top and bottom of a coal mine. The gravitational force below the surface of the Earth decreases rather than increasing with depth, because by Gauss’s law the mass of the spherical shell of crust above the subsurface point does not contribute to the gravity. The 1826 experiment was aborted by the flooding of the mine, but in 1854 he conducted an improved experiment at the Harton coal mine, using seconds pendulums swinging on agate plates, timed by precision chronometers synchronized by an electrical circuit. He found the lower pendulum was slower by 2.24 seconds per day. This meant that the gravitational acceleration at the bottom of the mine, 1250 ft below the surface, was 1/14,000 less than it should have been from the inverse square law; that is the attraction of the spherical shell was 1/14,000 of the attraction of the Earth. From samples of surface rock he estimated the mass of the spherical shell of crust, and from this estimated that the density of the Earth was 6.565 times that of water. Von Sterneck attempted to repeat the experiment in 1882 but found inconsistent results.

Repsold-Bessel pendulum: It was time-consuming and error-prone to repeatedly swing the Kater’s pendulum and adjust the weights until the periods were equal. Friedrich Bessel showed in 1835 that this was unnecessary. As long as the periods were close together, the gravity could be calculated from the two periods and the center of gravity of the pendulum. So the reversible pendulum didn’t need to be adjustable, it could just be a bar with two pivots. Bessel also showed that if the pendulum was made symmetrical in form about its center, but was weighted internally at one end, the errors due to air drag would cancel out. Further, another error due to the finite diameter of the knife edges could be made to cancel out if they were interchanged between measurements. Bessel didn’t construct such a pendulum, but in 1864 Adolf Repsold, under contract by the Swiss Geodetic Commission made a pendulum along these lines.  The Repsold pendulum was about 56 cm long and had a period of about second. It was used extensively by European geodetic agencies, and with the Kater pendulum in the Survey of India. Similar pendulums of this type were designed by Charles Pierce and C. Defforges.

Von Sterneck and Mendenhall gravimeters: In 1887 Austro-Hungarian scientist Robert von Sterneck developed a small gravimeter pendulum mounted in a temperature-controlled vacuum tank to eliminate the effects of temperature and air pressure. It used a “half-second pendulum,” having a period close to one second, about 25 cm long. The pendulum was nonreversible, so the instrument was used for relative gravity measurements, but their small size made them small and portable. The period of the pendulum was picked off by reflecting the image of an electric spark created by a precision chronometer off a mirror mounted at the top of the pendulum rod. The Von Sterneck instrument, and a similar instrument developed by Thomas C. Mendenhall of the US Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1890, were used extensively for surveys into the 1920s.

 

Gulf gravimeter: One of the last and most accurate pendulum gravimeters was the apparatus developed in 1929 by the Gulf Research and Development Co. It used two pendulums made of fused quartz, each in length with a period of 0.89 second, swinging on pyrex knife edge pivots, 180° out of phase. They were mounted in a permanently sealed temperature and humidity controlled vacuum chamber. Stray electrostatic charges on the quartz pendulums had to be discharged by exposing them to a radioactive salt before use. The period was detected by reflecting a light beam from a mirror at the top of the pendulum, recorded by a chart recorder and compared to a precision crystal oscillator calibrated against the WWV radio time signal. This instrument was accurate to within ×10−7 . Enlightenment scientists argued for a length standard that was based on some property of nature that could be determined by measurement, creating an indestructible, universal standard. The period of pendulums could be measured very precisely by timing them with clocks that were set by the stars. A pendulum standard amounted to defining the unit of length by the gravitational force of the Earth, for all intents constant, and the second, which was defined by the rotation rate of the Earth, also constant. The idea was that anyone, anywhere on Earth, could recreate the standard by constructing a pendulum that swung with the defined period and measuring its length.

Virtually all proposals were based on the seconds pendulum, in which each swing  takes one second, which is about a meter  long, because by the late 17th century it had become a standard for measuring gravity . By the 18th century its length had been measured with sub-millimeter accuracy at a number of cities in Europe and around the world.

The initial attraction of the pendulum length standard was that it was believed  that gravity was constant over the Earth’s surface, so a given pendulum had the same period at any point on Earth. So a pendulum length standard had to be defined at a single point on Earth and could only be measured there. This took much of the appeal from the concept, and efforts to adopt pendulum standards were abandoned.

Early proposals

One of the first to suggest defining length with a pendulum was Flemish scientist Isaac Beeckman who in 1631 recommended making the seconds pendulum “the invariable measure for all people at all times in all places”. Marin Mersenne, who first measured the seconds pendulum in 1644, also suggested it. The first official proposal for a pendulum standard was made by the British Royal Society in 1660, advocated by Christiaan Huygens and Ole Rømer, basing it on Mersenne’s work, and Huygens in Horologium Oscillatorium proposed a “horary foot” defined as 1/3 of the seconds pendulum. Christopher Wren was another early supporter. The idea of a pendulum standard of length must have been familiar to people as early as 1663, because Samuel Butler satirizes it in Hudibras:

 

In 1671 Jean Picard proposed a pendulum defined ‘universal foot’ in his influential Mesure de la Terre. Gabriel Mouton around 1670 suggested defining the toise either by a seconds pendulum or a minute of terrestrial degree. A plan for a complete system of units based on the pendulum was advanced in 1675 by Italian polymath Tito Livio Burratini. In France in 1747, geographer Charles Marie de la Condamine proposed defining length by a seconds pendulum at the equator; since at this location a pendulum’s swing wouldn’t be distorted by the Earth’s rotation. James Steuart  and George Skene Keith were also supporters.

By the end of the 18th century, when many nations were reforming their weight and measure systems, the seconds pendulum was the leading choice for a new definition of length, advocated by prominent scientists in several major nations. In 1790, then US Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed to Congress a comprehensive decimalized US ‘metric system’ based on the seconds pendulum at 38° North latitude, the mean latitude of the United States. No action was taken on this proposal. In Britain the leading advocate of the pendulum was politician John Riggs Miller. When his efforts to promote a joint British–French–American metric system fell through in 1790, he proposed a British system based on the length of the seconds pendulum at London. This standard was adopted in 1824 .

The metre

In the discussions leading up to the French adoption of the metric system in 1791, the leading candidate for the definition of the new unit of length, the metre, was the seconds pendulum at 45° North latitude. It was advocated by a group led by French politician Talleyrand and mathematician Antoine Nicolas Caritat de Condorcet. This was one of the three final options considered by the French Academy of Sciences committee. However, on March 19, 1791 the committee instead chose to base the metre on the length of the meridian through Paris. A pendulum definition was rejected because of its variability at different locations, and because it defined length by a unit of time.  A possible additional reason is that the radical French Academy didn’t want to base their new system on the second, a traditional and nondecimal unit from the ancien regime.

Although not defined by the pendulum, the final length chosen for the metre, 10−7 of the pole-to-equator meridian arc, was very close to the length of the seconds pendulum, within 0.63%. Although no reason for this particular choice was given at the time, it was probably to facilitate the use of the seconds pendulum as a secondary standard, as was proposed in the official document. So the modern world’s standard unit of length is certainly closely linked historically with the seconds pendulum.

Britain and Denmark

Britain and Denmark appear to be the only nations that  based their units of length on the pendulum. In 1821 the Danish inch was defined as 1/38 of the length of the mean solar seconds pendulum at 45° latitude at the meridian of Skagen, at sea level, in vacuum. The British parliament passed the Imperial Weights and Measures Act in 1824, a reform of the British standard system which declared that if the prototype standard yard was destroyed, it would be recovered by defining the inch so that the length of the solar seconds pendulum at London, at sea level, in a vacuum, at 62 °F was 39.1393 inches. This also became the US standard, since at the time the US used British measures. However, when the prototype yard was lost in the 1834 Houses of Parliament fire, it proved impossible to recreate it accurately from the pendulum definition, and in 1855 Britain repealed the pendulum standard and returned to prototype standards.

Other uses

Seismometers

A pendulum in which the rod is not vertical but almost horizontal was used in early seismometers for measuring earth tremors. The bob of the pendulum does not move when its mounting does, and the difference in the movements is recorded on a drum chart.

Schuler tuning

As first explained by Maximilian Schuler in a 1923 paper, a pendulum whose period exactly equals the orbital period of a hypothetical satellite orbiting just above the surface of the earth  will tend to remain pointing at the center of the earth when its support is suddenly displaced. This principle, called Schuler tuning, is used in inertial guidance systems in ships and aircraft that operate on the surface of the Earth. No physical pendulum is used, but the control system that keeps the inertial platform containing the gyroscopes stable is modified so the device acts as though it is attached to such a pendulum, keeping the platform always facing down as the vehicle moves on the curved surface of the Earth.

Coupled pendulums

In 1665 Huygens made a curious observation about pendulum clocks. Two clocks had been placed on his mantlepiece, and he noted that they had acquired an opposing motion. That is, their pendulums were beating in unison but in the opposite direction; 180° out of phase. Regardless of how the two clocks were started, he found that they would eventually return to this state, thus making the first recorded observation of a coupled oscillator.

The cause of this behavior was that the two pendulums were affecting each other through slight motions of the supporting mantlepiece. This process is called entrainment or mode locking in physics and is observed in other coupled oscillators. Synchronized pendulums have been used in clocks and were widely used in gravimeters in the early 20th century. Although Huygens only observed out-of-phase synchronization, recent investigations have shown the existence of in-phase synchronization, as well as “death” states wherein one or both clocks stops.

Religious practice

Pendulum motion appears in religious ceremonies as well. The swinging incense burner called a censer, also known as a thurible, is an example of a pendulum. Pendulums are also seen at many gatherings in eastern Mexico where they mark the turning of the tides on the day which the tides are at their highest point. See also pendulums for divination and dowsing.

See also

Notes

The value of g reflected by the period of a pendulum varies from place to place. The gravitational force varies with distance from the center of the Earth, i.e. with altitude – or because the Earth’s shape is oblate, g varies with latitude.

A more important cause of this reduction in g at the equator is because the equator is spinning at one revolution per day, reducing the gravitational force there.

References

 

Further reading

  1. L. Baker and J. A. Blackburn . The Pendulum: A Case Study in Physics .
  2. Gitterman . The Chaotic Pendulum .

Michael R. Matthews, Arthur Stinner, Colin F. Gauld The Pendulum: Scientific, Historical, Philosophical and Educational Perspectives, Springer

Michael R. Matthews, Colin Gauld and Arthur Stinner  The Pendulum: Its Place in Science, Culture and Pedagogy. Science & Education, 13, 261-277.

Schlomo Silbermann, “Pendulum Fundamental; The Path Of Nowhere”

  1. P. Pook . Understanding Pendulums: A Brief Introduction .

 

Bibliography:

Wikipedia

Reiki and the power of the soul and quartz / amethyst pointers

Reiki

is a form of alternative medicine developed in 1922 by Japanese Buddhist Mikao Usui. Since originating in Japan, Reiki has been adapted into varying cultural traditions across the world. Reiki practitioners use a technique they call palm healing or hands-on healing by which a “universal energy” is allegedly transferred through the palms of the practitioner to a patient in order to encourage healing.

Reiki is considered pseudoscience. Clinical research has not shown Reiki to be effective as a medical treatment for any medical condition. The American Cancer Society, state that Reiki should not be a replacement for conventional treatment.

Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the English alternative medicine word reiki or Reiki is etymologically from Japanese reiki  “mysterious atmosphere, miraculous sign”, combining rei “soul, spirit” and ki “vital energy”—the Sino-Japanese reading of Chinese língqì  “numinous atmosphere”. The earliest recorded English usage dates to 1975.

The Japanese reiki is commonly written as レイキ in katakana syllabary or as 霊気 in shinjitai “new character form” kanji. It compounds the words rei  and ki . Ki is additionally defined as “… spirits; one’s feelings, mood, frame of mind; temperament, temper, disposition, one’s nature, character; mind to do something, intention, will; care, attention, precaution”. Some reiki translation equivalents from Japanese-English dictionaries are: “feeling of mystery”, “an atmosphere  of mystery”, and “an ethereal atmosphere ;  a spiritual  presence.” Besides the usual Sino-Japanese pronunciation reiki, these kanji 霊気 have an alternate Japanese reading, namely ryōge, meaning “demon; ghost” .

Chinese língqì 靈氣 was first recorded in the  Neiye “Inward Training” section of the Guanzi, describing early Daoist meditation techniques. “That mysterious vital energy within the mind: One moment it arrives, the next it departs. So fine, there is nothing within it; so vast, there is nothing outside it. We lose it because of the harm caused by mental agitation.” Modern Standard Chinese língqì is translated by Chinese-English dictionaries as: ” spiritual influence or atmosphere”; “1. intelligence; power of understanding; 2. supernatural power or force in fairy tales; miraculous power or force”; and “1. spiritual influence ; 2. ingeniousness; cleverness”.

Origins

According to the inscription on his memorial stone, Usui taught his system of Reiki to more than 2,000 people during his lifetime. While teaching Reiki in Fukuyama, Usui suffered a stroke and died on 9 March 1926.

Research, critical evaluation, and controversy

Basis and effectiveness

Reiki’s teachings and adherents claim that qi is physiological and can be manipulated to treat a disease or condition. The existence of qi has not been established by medical research. Most research on Reiki is poorly designed and prone to bias. There is no reliable empirical evidence that Reiki is helpful for treating any medical condition, although some physicians have said it might help promote general well-being.

Scholarly evaluation

Reiki is used as an illustrative example of pseudoscience in scholarly texts and academic journal articles. Emily Rosa became the youngest person to publish in the medical literature at 11 years old when her school science project was published by the Journal of the American Medical Association demonstrating that Reiki pracitioners could not detect the alleged “life force” under experimental conditions.

Rhonda McClenton states, “The reality is that Reiki, under the auspices of pseudo-science, has begun the process of becoming institutionalized in settings where people are already very vulnerable.” Ferraresi et al. state, “In spite of its  diffusion, the baseline mechanism of action has not been demonstrated…” Wendy Reiboldt states about Reiki, “Neither the forces involved nor the alleged therapeutic benefits have been demonstrated by scientific testing.” Several authors have pointed to the vitalistic energy which Reiki is claimed to treat. Larry Sarner states, “Ironically, the only thing that distinguishes Reiki from Therapeutic Touch is that it involves actual touch.”

A guideline published by the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation states, “Reiki therapy should probably not be considered for the treatment of PDN .” Canadian sociologist Susan J. Palmer has listed Reiki as among the pseudoscientific healing methods used by cults in France to attract members.

Hospital usage

In April 2016 Reiki treatments were being made available at St. Mark’s Hospital in Salt Lake City. Utah. “We have two reiki masters if this is something patients are interested in,” said Rachel King, the hospital’s marketing coordinator.

Issues in the literature

One systematic review of 9 randomized clinical trials conducted by Lee, Pittler, and Ernst  found several issues in the literature on Reiki. First, several of these studies are actually funded by the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Second, depending on the tools used to measure depression and anxiety, the results varied and didn’t appear to have much reliability or validity. Furthermore, the scientific community has had issues in replicating the findings of studies that support Reiki. The authors of the review also found issues in reporting methodology in some of the literature, in that often there were parts left out completely or not clearly described. Frequently in these studies, sample sizes are not calculated and adequate allocation and conceal procedures were also not followed. In their review, Lee, Pittler, and Ernst  found that studies without double-blind procedures tended to exaggerate treatment effects as well. Additionally, there was no control for differences in experience of the Reiki administers and they found that even the same healer could produce different outcomes in different studies. None of the studies in the review provided rationale for the treatment duration in such that there is a need for an optimal dosage of Reiki to be established for further research. Another questionable issue with the Reiki research included in this systematic review was that no study reported any adverse effects. It is clear that this area of research requires further studies to be conducted that follow proper scientific method, especially since the main theory on which the therapy is based has never been scientifically proven.

Safety

Safety concerns for Reiki sessions are very low and are akin to those of many complementary and alternative medicine practices. Some physicians and health care providers however believe that patients may unadvisedly substitute proven treatments for life-threatening conditions with unproven alternative modalities including Reiki, thus endangering their health.

Catholic Church concerns

In March 2009, the Committee on Doctrine of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops issued the document Guidelines for Evaluating Reiki as an Alternative Therapy, in which they declared that the practice of Reiki was superstition, being neither truly faith healing nor science-based medicine. Since this announcement, some Catholic lay people have continued to practice reiki, but it has been removed from many Catholic hospitals and other institutions.

See also

Energy medicine

Glossary of alternative medicine

Laying on of hands

List of ineffective cancer treatments

Shinto

Vibrational medicine

References

Bibliography

External links

 

 

Bibliography:

Wikipedia

Jewellery online buy necklaces, earrings, quartz, moonstone, mineral, amethyst, gold, silver…

Jewellery or jewelry  consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery. The basic forms of jewellery vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewellery listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia.

Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures, but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other periods in European culture.

The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French “jouel”, and beyond that, to the Latin word “jocale”, meaning plaything. In British English, Indian English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, and South African English it is spelled jewellery, while the spelling is jewelry in American English.

as an artistic display

as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning – such as love, mourning, or even luck

Most cultures at some point have had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads.

Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.

Jewellery can also symbolise group membership  or status .

Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols, stones, plants, animals, body parts, or glyphs .

Materials and methods

In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery. Bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most contemporary gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity,  and is typically found up to 18K . Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K, and 24 K  being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Platinum alloys range from 900  to 950 . The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless steel findings are sometimes used.

Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give an English Assay office  the right to destroy the piece, however it is very rare for the assay office to do so.

Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the “woven” style of beaded jewellery. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures.

Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving and “cold-joining” .

Diamonds

Diamonds were first mined in India. Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas; In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production. There are negative consequences of the diamond trade in certain areas. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, and other nations have been labelled as blood diamonds when they are mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency.

The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found, at 3,106.75 carats .

Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.

Other gemstones

Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are:

Amber: Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old.

Amethyst: Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark.

Emerald: Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones  and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC.

Jade: Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colours as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven.

Jasper: Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours  and swirls in the stone’s pattern.

Quartz: Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz, and smoky quartz . A number of other gemstones, such as Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions.

Ruby: Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones.

Sapphire: The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones .

Turquoise: Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour.

Some gemstones  are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals.

Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconia, which can be used in place of diamond.

Metal finishes

For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material  against the metal, leaving “brush strokes.” Hammered finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.

Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver  or may be plated with rhodium or gold. Base metal costume jewellery may also be plated with silver, gold, or rhodium for a more attractive finish.

Impact on society

Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, only certain ranks could wear rings; later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery. This was also based on rank of the citizens of that time. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role. For example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century and early 20th century. More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings, has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is completely rejected in others. Likewise, hip hop culture has popularised the slang term bling-bling, which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women.

Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise wedding rings for men, which caught on, as well as engagement rings for men, which did not, going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had medieval roots. By the mid-1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. featured a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the 1920s. Religion has also played a role in societies influence. Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo, and many religions have edicts against excessive display. In Christianity, the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold, in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. In Revelation 17, “the great whore” or false religious system, is depicted as being “decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand.”  For Muslims it is considered haraam for a man to wear gold.

History

The history of jewellery is long and goes back many years, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked.

Prehistory

The first signs of jewellery came from the people in Africa. Perforated beads suggesting shell jewellery made from sea snail shells have been found dating to 75,000 years ago at Blombos Cave. In Kenya, at Enkapune Ya Muto, beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40,000 years ago. In Russia, a stone bracelet and marble ring are attributed to a similar age.

Later, the European early modern humans had crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth, berries, and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew, or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces.

A decorated engraved pendant dating to around 11,000 BC, and thought to be the oldest Mesolithic art in Britain, was found at the site of Star Carr in North Yorkshire in 2015. In southern Russia, carved bracelets made of mammoth tusk have been found. The Venus of Hohle Fels features a perforation at the top, showing that it was intended to be worn as a pendant.

Around seven-thousand years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen.

Egypt

The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000–5,000 years ago. The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. In Predynastic Egypt jewellery soon began to symbolise power and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods.

In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass, along with semi-precious gems. The colour of the jewellery had significance. Green, for example, symbolised fertility. Lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the country’s borders.

Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies.

Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly coloured stones . Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols. They employed a wide variety of sophisticated metalworking techniques, such as cloisonné, engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.

Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:

Greece

The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1600 BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. Around 1500 BC, the main techniques of working gold in Greece included casting, twisting bars, and making wire. Many of these sophisticated techniques were popular in the Mycenaean period, but unfortunately this skill was lost at the end of the Bronze Age. The forms and shapes of jewellery in ancient Greece such as the armring, brooch  and pins, have varied widely since the Bronze Age as well. Other forms of jewellery include wreaths, earrings, necklace and bracelets. A good example of the high quality that gold working techniques could achieve in Greece is the ‘Gold Olive Wreath’, which is modeled on the type of wreath given as a prize for winners in athletic competitions like the Olympic Games. Jewellery dating from 600 to 475 BC is not well represented in the archaeological record, but after the Persian wars the quantity of jewellery again became more plentiful. One particularly popular type of design at this time was a bracelet decorated with snake and animal-heads Because these bracelets used considerably more metal, many examples were made from bronze. By 300 BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts, pearl, and emeralds. Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx, a striped brown pink and cream agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed, the designs grew in complexity and different materials were soon used.

Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special occasions. It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by women to show their wealth, social status, and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection from the “Evil Eye” or endowed the owner with supernatural powers, while others had a religious symbolism. Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods.

They worked two styles of pieces: cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered. It was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds. The two halves were then joined together, and wax, followed by molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been practised since the late Bronze Age. The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to thickness and then soldered together. The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface.”’

The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia, when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive. Numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia, with only one example ever found anywhere else.

Rome

Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone, and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilised wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants that could be filled with perfume.

Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the “Evil Eye” given by other people. Although women wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring. Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every finger, while others wore none. Roman men and women wore rings with an engraved gem on it that was used with wax to seal documents, a practice that continued into medieval times when kings and noblemen used the same method. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes. The Celts specialised in continuous patterns and designs, while Merovingian designs are best known for stylised animal figures. They were not the only groups known for high quality work. Note the Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England are a particularly well-known example.

Renaissance

The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade led to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. An example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghan lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings. Notable among merchants of the period was Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France in the 1660s.

When Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned as Emperor of the French in 1804, he revived the style and grandeur of jewellery and fashion in France. Under Napoleon’s rule, jewellers introduced parures, suites of matching jewellery, such as a diamond tiara, diamond earrings, diamond rings, a diamond brooch, and a diamond necklace. Both of Napoleon’s wives had beautiful sets such as these and wore them regularly. Another fashion trend resurrected by Napoleon was the cameo. Soon after his cameo decorated crown was seen, cameos were highly sought. The period also saw the early stages of costume jewellery, with fish scale covered glass beads in place of pearls or conch shell cameos instead of stone cameos. New terms were coined to differentiate the arts: jewellers who worked in cheaper materials were called bijoutiers, while jewellers who worked with expensive materials were called joailliers, a practice which continues to this day.

Romanticism

Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology and a fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art. Changing social conditions and the onset of the Industrial Revolution also led to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes led to the development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish, however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though superior artistic and technical work. One such artist was the French goldsmith François-Désiré Froment-Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often seen wearing jet jewellery after the death of Prince Albert, and it allowed the wearer to continue wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one. Perhaps the grand finalé – and an appropriate transition to the following period – were the masterful creations of the Russian artist Peter Carl Fabergé, working for the Imperial Russian court, whose Fabergé eggs and jewellery pieces are still considered as the epitome of the goldsmith’s art.

18th Century / Romanticism/ Renaissance

Many whimsical fashions were introduced in the extravagant eighteenth century. Cameos that were used in connection with jewelry were the attractive trinkets along with many of the small objects such as brooches, ear-rings and scarf-pins. Some of the necklets were made of several pieces joined with the gold chains were in and bracelets were also made sometimes to match the necklet and the broach. At the end of the Century the jewelry with cut steel intermixed with large crystals was introduced by an Englishman, Matthew Boulton of Birmingham.

Art Nouveau

In the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potential of the growing Art Nouveau style and the closely related German Jugendstil, British  Arts and Crafts Movement, Catalan Modernisme, Austro-Hungarian Sezession, Italian “Liberty”, etc.

Art Nouveau jewellery encompassed many distinct features including a focus on the female form and an emphasis on colour, most commonly rendered through the use of enamelling techniques including basse-taille, champleve, cloisonné, and plique-à-jour. Motifs included orchids, irises, pansies, vines, swans, peacocks, snakes, dragonflies, mythological creatures, and the female silhouette.

René Lalique, working for the Paris shop of Samuel Bing, was recognised by contemporaries as a leading figure in this trend. The Darmstadt Artists’ Colony and Wiener Werkstätte provided perhaps the most significant input to the trend, while in Denmark Georg Jensen, though best known for his Silverware, also contributed significant pieces. In England, Liberty & Co. and the British arts & crafts movement of Charles Robert Ashbee contributed slightly more linear but still characteristic designs. The new style moved the focus of the jeweller’s art from the setting of stones to the artistic design of the piece itself. Lalique’s dragonfly design is one of the best examples of this. Enamels played a large role in technique, while sinuous organic lines are the most recognisable design feature.

The end of World War I once again changed public attitudes, and a more sober style developed.

Art Deco

Growing political tensions, the after-effects of the war, and a reaction against the perceived decadence of the turn of the 20th century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Art Deco. Walter Gropius and the German Bauhaus movement, with their philosophy of “no barriers between artists and craftsmen” led to some interesting and stylistically simplified forms. Modern materials were also introduced: plastics and aluminium were first used in jewellery, and of note are the chromed pendants of Russian-born Bauhaus master Naum Slutzky. Technical mastery became as valued as the material itself. In the West, this period saw the reinvention of granulation by the German Elizabeth Treskow, although development of the re-invention has continued into the 1990s. It is based on the basic shapes.

Asia

In Asia, the Indian subcontinent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere, with a history of over 5,000 years. One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization, in what is now predominately modern-day Pakistan and part of northern and western India. Early jewellery making in China started around the same period, but it became widespread with the spread of Buddhism around 2,000 years ago.

China

The Chinese used silver in their jewellery more than gold. Blue kingfisher feathers were tied onto early Chinese jewellery and later, blue gems and glass were incorporated into designs. However, jade was preferred over any other stone. The Chinese revered jade because of the human-like qualities they assigned to it, such as its hardness, durability, and beauty.

In China, the most uncommon piece of jewellery is the earring, which was worn neither by men nor women. Amulets were common, often with a Chinese symbol or dragon. Dragons, Chinese symbols, and phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs.

The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves. Most Chinese graves found by archaeologists contain decorative jewellery.

Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent  has a long jewellery history, which went through various changes through cultural influence and politics for more than 5,000–8,000 years. Because India had an abundant supply of precious metals and gems, it prospered financially through export and exchange with other countries. While European traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5,000 years. Other pieces that women frequently wore were thin bands of gold that would be worn on the forehead, earrings, primitive brooches, chokers, and gold rings. Although women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were often crafted to be placed in men and women’s hair. The beads were about one millimetre long.

A female skeleton  wears a carlinean bangle  on her left hand. Kada is a special kind of bracelet and is widely popular in Indian culture. They symbolizes animals like peacock, elephant, etc.

According to Hindu belief, gold and silver are considered as sacred metals. Gold is symbolic of the warm sun, while silver suggests the cool moon. Both are the quintessential metals of Indian jewellery. Pure gold does not oxidise or corrode with time, which is why Hindu tradition associates gold with immortality. Gold imagery occurs frequently in ancient Indian literature. In the Vedic Hindu belief of cosmological creation, the source of physical and spiritual human life originated in and evolved from a golden womb  or egg, a metaphor of the sun, whose light rises from the primordial waters.

Jewellery had great status with India’s royalty; it was so powerful that they established laws, limiting wearing of jewellery to royalty. Only royalty and a few others to whom they granted permission could wear gold ornaments on their feet. This would normally be considered breaking the appreciation of the sacred metals. Even though the majority of the Indian population wore jewellery, Maharajas and people related to royalty had a deeper connection with jewellery. The Maharaja’s role was so important that the Hindu philosophers identified him as central to the smooth working of the world. He was considered as a divine being, a deity in human form, whose duty was to uphold and protect dharma, the moral order of the universe.

Navaratna is a powerful jewel frequently worn by a Maharaja . It is an amulet, which comprises diamond, pearl, ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, cat’s eye, coral, and hyacinth . Each of these stones is associated with a celestial deity, represented the totality of the Hindu universe when all nine gems are together. The diamond is the most powerful gem among the nine stones. There were various cuts for the gemstone. Indian Kings bought gemstones privately from the sellers. Maharaja and other royal family members value gem as Hindu God. They exchanged gems with people to whom they were very close, especially the royal family members and other intimate allies. “Only the emperor himself, his intimate relations, and select members of his entourage were permitted to wear royal turban ornament. As the empire matured, differing styles of ornament acquired the generic name of sarpech, from sar or sir, meaning head, and pech, meaning fastener.”

India was the first country to mine diamonds, with some mines dating back to 296 BC. India traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities. Historically, diamonds have been given to retain or regain a lover’s or ruler’s lost favour, as symbols of tribute, or as an expression of fidelity in exchange for concessions and protection. Mughal emperors and Kings used the diamonds as a means of assuring their immortality by having their names and wordly titles inscribed upon them. Moreover, it has played and continues to play a pivotal role in Indian social, political, economic, and religious event, as it often has done elsewhere. In Indian history, diamonds have been used to acquire military equipment, finance wars, foment revolutions, and tempt defections. They have contributed to the abdication or the decapitation of potentates. They have been used to murder a representative of the dominating power by lacing his food with crushed diamond. Indian diamonds have been used as security to finance large loans needed to buttress politically or economically tottering regimes. Victorious military heroes have been honoured by rewards of diamonds and also have been used as ransom payment for release from imprisonment or abduction.

Today, many of the jewellery designs and traditions are used, and jewellery is commonplace in Indian ceremonies and weddings.

Among the Aztecs, only nobility wore gold jewellery, as it showed their rank, power, and wealth. Gold jewellery was most common in the Aztec Empire and was often decorated with feathers from Quetzal birds and others. In general, the more jewellery an Aztec noble wore, the higher his status or prestige. The Emperor and his High Priests, for example, would be nearly completely covered in jewellery when making public appearances. Although gold was the most common and a popular material used in Aztec jewellery, jade, turquoise, and certain feathers were considered more valuable. In addition to adornment and status, the Aztecs also used jewellery in sacrifices to appease the gods. Priests also used gem-encrusted daggers to perform animal and human sacrifices.

Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making were the Maya. At the peak of their civilization, the Maya were making jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze, and copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish headdresses and jewellery. The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to metal, so they made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone. Merchants and nobility were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya region, much the same as with the Aztecs.

Native American

Native American jewellery is the personal adornment, often in the forms of necklaces, earrings, bracelets, rings, pins, brooches, labrets, and more, made by the Indigenous peoples of the United States. Native American jewellery reflects the cultural diversity and history of its makers. Native American tribes continue to develop distinct aesthetics rooted in their personal artistic visions and cultural traditions. Artists create jewellery for adornment, ceremonies, and trade. Lois Sherr Dubin writes, “n the absence of written languages, adornment became an important element of Indian  communication, conveying many levels of information.” Later, jewellery and personal adornment “…signaled resistance to assimilation. It remains a major statement of tribal and individual identity.”

Metalsmiths, beaders, carvers, and lapidaries combine a variety of metals, hardwoods, precious and semi-precious gemstones, beadwork, quillwork, teeth, bones, hide, vegetal fibres, and other materials to create jewellery. Contemporary Native American jewellery ranges from hand-quarried and processed stones and shells to computer-fabricated steel and titanium jewellery.

Pacific

Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood, and other natural materials, and thus has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins, and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces.

Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility or power. Elaborate headdresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, wear certain headdresses once they have killed an enemy. Tribesman may wear boar bones through their noses.

Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside cultures. Some areas of Borneo and Papua New Guinea are yet to be explored by Western nations. However, the island nations that were flooded with Western missionaries have had drastic changes made to their jewellery designs. Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as a sign of the wearer’s devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the mass conversion to Christianity.

Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Opals had already been mined in Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 19th century, the Australian opal market became predominant. Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the country, making it one of the most profitable stones in the Pacific.

The New Zealand Māori traditionally had a strong culture of personal adornment, most famously the hei-tiki. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone, nephrite, or bowenite.

Nowadays a wide range of such traditionally inspired items such as bone carved pendants based on traditional fishhooks hei matau and other greenstone jewellery are popular with young New Zealanders of all backgrounds – for whom they relate to a generalized sense of New Zealand identity. These trends have contributed towards a worldwide interest in traditional Māori culture and arts.

Other than jewellery created through Māori influence, modern jewellery in New Zealand is multicultural and varied.

Also, 3D printing as a production technique gains more and more importance. With a great variety of services offering this production method, jewellery design becomes accessible to a growing number of creatives. An important advantage of using 3d printing are the relatively low costs for prototypes, small batch series or unique and personalized designs. Shapes that are hard or impossible to create by hand can often be realized by 3D printing. Popular materials to print include Polyamide, steel and wax . Every printable material has its very own constraints that have to be considered while designing the piece of jewelry using 3d Modelling Software.

Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 United States periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility, and a low initial cost of entry continues to expand production of hand-made adornments. Some fine examples of artisan jewellery can be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.

The increase in numbers of students choosing to study jewellery design and production in Australia has grown in the past 20 years, and Australia now has a thriving contemporary jewellery community. Many of these jewellers have embraced modern materials and techniques, as well as incorporating traditional workmanship.

More expansive use of metal to adorn the wearer, where the piece is larger and more elaborate than what would normally be considered jewellery, has come to be referred to by designers and fashion writers as Metal Couture.

Masonic

Freemasons attach jewels to their detachable collars when in Lodge to signify a Brothers Office held with the Lodge. For example, the square represents the Master of the Lodge and the dove represents the Deacon.

Body modification

Jewellery used in body modification can be simple and plain or dramatic and extreme. The use of simple silver studs, rings, and earrings predominates. Common jewellery pieces such as, earrings are a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear.

Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as five years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach long. The practice has health impacts and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity. Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes or enlarge ear piercings. In the Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and First Nations peoples of the northwest coast. Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples.

In the late twentieth century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects, thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred.

In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier; in some cases, with hooks or other objects being placed into the recipient’s skin. Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies, this practice has seeped into western culture. Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. This practice is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whilst being suspended by hooks. the largest jewellery market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India, China, and the Middle East each with 8–9%, and Italy with 5%. The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe’s and Japan’s marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries, Italy and the UK.

See also

Art jewelry

Estate jewelry

Heirloom

List of jewellery types

Live insect jewelry

Gemology

Jewellery cleaning

Wire sculpture

Jewelry Television

Jewellery Quarter

Bronze and brass ornamental work

List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

References

Further reading

Borel, F. 1994. The Splendor of Ethnic Jewelry: from the Colette and Jean-Pierre Ghysels Collection. New York: H.N. Abrams .

Evans, J. 1989. A History of Jewellery 1100–1870 .

Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea 1998. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press .

Tait, H. 1986. Seven Thousand Years of Jewellery. London: British Museum Publications .

External links

 

 

Bibliography:

Wikipedia