I sell amethyst stones and geodes
I sell natural spheres everywhere. contact for more info
(as cited on thespruce.com)
Tigers eye is a very protective stone. It has a powerful, dynamic energy with a watchful quality to it. After all, there is a reason this stone is called tigers eye!
Specific colours of your tigers eye stone – from golden yellow to deep reds – will express, in different degrees, a strengthening and grounding energy. Tigers eye also has a mystical, opalescent quality to it, and the combination of solid black colour stripes with shimmering golds, browns and reds make for a very special stone indeed.
WHAT IS SPECIAL ABOUT TIGERS EYE?
Tigers eye is a favorite when it comes to protective stones. Much like with the dzi beads, the watchful eye energy of the tigers stone has long been used in various forms of jewelry and protective home decor.
Unlike other protective stones, such as carnelian or black tourmaline, for example, tigers eye can also help balance and clear emotions, thus contributing to a calm mind and peaceful disposition.
WHERE DOES TIGERS EYE COME FROM?
Most of the tigers eye stones come from India, US, South Africa and Australia.
WHAT ARE THE SPECIFIC FENG SHUI PROPERTIES OF TIGERS EYE?
In feng shui, tigers eye is used for its protection and clearing properties. You can find tigers eye’s energy employed in various feng shui cures, from wind chimes, pi yao and balls to specific feng shui carvings such as mandarin ducks, hearts, etc.
Metaphysically, tigers eye is attributed many healing properties; here are the most popular ones.
A tigers eye:
- Brings insight into complex situations
- Protects from negative energies
- Helps focus the mind
- Attracts good luck
- Can deepen one’s meditative state
- Grounds and centers personal energy
- Dispels fears
- Promotes mental clarity
Tigers eye is one of the birthstones of the astrological sign of Capricorn.
WHERE DO I PLACE MY TIGERS EYEN FOR GOOD FENG SHUI?
Because tigers eye has strong protective qualities, one excellent placement of this stone is near the front door or a big window. You can also place tigers stone in children’s rooms. To benefit from clearing and calming properties of tigers eye, place several stones in your home office.
Tigers eye can also be a good feng shui enhancer for the West and Northwest bagua areas of a home or office because it brings a quality of energy that is clear, crisp and earthy. Crispness and clarity are the properties attributed to the Metal feng shui element that dominates these two bagua areas.
The earthiness of tigers eye is supportive of Metal, so the combination of two makes the tigers eye an excellent feng shui cure for either of these two bagua areas.
WHAT FORM OF TIGERS EYE SHOULD I CHOOSE?
Depending on your needs, you can choose a typical classical feng shui cure in tigers eye, such as the pi yao, for example, or you can just go for several tumble stones in a bowl. You can also decorate with a sphere made from tigers eye, or find a gem tree that has tigers eye in it.
Of course, good feng shui jewelry, as always, is such an excellent option to benefit from the powerful energies of any crystal or stone.
From tigers eye bracelets to rings and pendants, choose what works for you the best.
A couple of smooth tigers eye tumbled stones in your pocket or purse might be a more practical idea if you do not like to wear jewelry. As with most crystals and stones, do not forget to clear the energy of your tigers eye from time to time.
as cited on thespruce.com
The meaning of malachite is in its energy. Malachite is one of the best stones to promote a constant flow because this powerful healer is especially attuned to improving your health and well-being.
Malachite clears stagnant energy, removes blockages and helps you achieve a state of genuine well-being on many levels – from physical to emotional.
Be aware that, as with many other stones, malachite is often synthetically made. The beautiful malachite ring you just bought from a department store might not be a real malachite, so always best to ask about the origin and quality of your stone before purchasing jewelry.
A reputable supplier will help you differentiate between the natural and the man-made malachite so you can make an informed choice.
You can easily find malachite in tumbled form, as well as in shapes such as hearts, spheres, pyramids, angels, turtles, etc.
It is not easy to find malachite clusters or natural points, while geodes are sometimes available. Of course, malachite jewelry is popular and widely available, but again, be sure you are buying a natural malachite if you want to truly benefit from the healing energy of this stone.
WHAT IS SPECIAL ABOUT MALACHITE?
Malachite has a unique combination of fresh and potent flow of healing energy that is refreshing and soothing at the same time. Depending on the depth of its multitude of green colours, malachite can also be grounding and calming.
This is a much-loved stone in many cultures because it has a strong renewing energy that is optimistic, healing and revitalizing; malachite reminds us to always look at life with fresh new eyes.
Malachite is also used for protection, especially when the striations on its surface resemble the eye shape (this use is similar to the use of Dzi beads and Turkish “evil eye” jewelry).
WHERE DOES MALACHITE COME FROM?
Most of the malachite on the market comes from Russia, Zaire, Chile, and Australia.
WHAT ARE THE SPECIFIC FENG SHUI PROPERTIES OF MALACHITE?
As a strong energizer and protector, the malachite is used in many feng shui cures – from feng shui turtles for support, spheres and egg shapes for health to malachite Wu Lou (Chinese gourds) for wealth.
Malachite can also energize any stagnant area of your home or office, so it can be used as a feng shui activating cure for a specific period of time.
WHERE DO I PLACE THE MALACHITE FOR GOOD FENG SHUI?
The strong and vibrant green of the malachite – a color that belongs to the Wood feng shui element – makes malachite items an excellent feng shui cure for Health & Family (East) and Money & Abundance (Southeast) areas of your home bagua.
You can also place the malachite in the office, close to your computer, to help maintain your energy levels throughout the day.
WHAT FORM OF MALACHITE SHOULD I CHOOSE?
You can go for malachite tumbled rocks or choose from a variety of carvings, such as the ones mentioned above – from angels to hearts, it is up to you to choose a symbol that speaks to you the most.
Of course, if malachite is the stone whose energy can really benefit you, do not hesitate to buy yourself malachite jewelry. It is not very expensive, and it can really work its magic when placed close to your body/in your personal energy field.
Jade seems to be the most popular choice when it comes to various carvings used as feng shui cures. Jade is also much loved in various jewelry pieces – from beads to bracelets and rings. What makes jade a feng shui favorite? What is the meaning of jade? And how is jade jewelry good feng shui for your body? Let’s find out.
What is the meaning of Jade?
Jade carries a sweet, light and nourishing energy that can feel very healing.
It has a soothing purity about it, and it goes about purifying your energy field in a very accepting, loving, and wise kind of way.
So, one obvious meaning of the jade stone is purity and purification. Another meaning of jade is gentleness and nourishment because jade is a stone that protects and supports loving heart energy.
Jade may feel to you like an ancient sage that is so centered in his or her own being (and accepting of others) that just by being in their presence you feel elevated and nurtured.
There is no strong rush of energy when it comes to jade. Its energy is very different from other popular feng shui stones such as pyrite or hematite, for example. The message of jade is “Love and Accept Yourself”, and its powerful healing starts by helping you align yourself with its balanced, harmonious quality of energy.
So, yet another meaning of jade is harmony and balance.
The Specific Feng Shui Properties of Jade
In feng shui, jade has been used for centuries for its abilities to create a serene feeling of harmony and balance. Jade is also used as a protection and good luck feng shui stone. You can find endless good luck feng shui charms with jade employed for various purposes – from creating wealth to attracting more friends.
Jade jewelry is also a popular feng shui application (body feng shui, which is no less important than your home feng shui!).
Of course, another reason why jade has been extensively used in feng shui is because jade is widely available in China, the birthplace of feng shui. Jade comes in many colors – from green-blue to white, and you can choose your jade stone by better understanding the energy of specific colors.
How to Place Jade for Good Feng Shui
As jade belongs to the earth feng shui element, it is best to place it as a feng shui cure in the areas that are either governed or nourished by the earth element. All bagua areas except North and South can benefit from the soothing energy of jade.
You can choose either a jade carving in a specific symbol that speaks to you personally or go for jade tumble stones. Explore the meaning of various feng shui symbols to help you make a better choice for your home or office.
For example, you can choose jade Mandarin ducks for love energy (placed in the Southwest bagua area) or a jade Pi Yao for wealth (placed in the Southeast area). Carvings of flowers, especially peonies, are popular in jade because of a beautiful expression of the energy of flowers through this gentle stone.
A jade Buddha may be an excellent feng shui decor/cure for your home, as the soothing and wise energy of jade is the best match for Buddha energy, be it the Laughing Buddha or the Medicine Buddha. Another popular feng shui deity expression is the Green Tara carved in green color jade stone.
As cited from thespurce.com
When studying energies, we find that in some older societies and older countries, gold was used for healing or was thought to have had healing properties. They used, at that time, 24-karat gold, not gold alloyed with other metals. Other metals change the properties of the pure gold and the vibrations emitting from it. If a person took pure gold and put it on an infection or a sore spot, it was said to help heal the wound and control infection. It was considered that gold possessed an energy that brought warm, soothing vibrations to the body to aid healing, for when the body relaxes and the blood vessels in the cells aren’t as constricted, blood can move through the tissue spaces more easily. Since all healing is the growth of new cells replacing the dead cells, the body would heal much better and faster, just as those people who have learned to meditate and use the other various arts of relaxation can testify.
In studying the different uses of gold in the healing arts, we find that for thousands of years acupuncturists used silver and gold needles. It was said that gold is warm and stimulating while silver contains a cold, inhibiting factor.
In some areas of India, if a man had hemorrhoids, he would wear a silver ring around his left little finger. In studying reflexologies and acupuncture meridians and other related sciences, you will find that the little finger reflexes with the anal area of the body, thus silver would have a tendency to make their tissues contract and help to cure the hemorrhoidal condition, as hemorrhoids are a malfunction of the muscles of the blood vessel walls. Today, modern acupuncturists use only steel needles. The art of feeling and knowing the different vibrations caused by various metals within the body’s energy systems has been virtually lost. Even today, however, there are some acupuncturists who will use a gold bead, sometimes only a 64th of an inch in diameter. The bead is placed on a small square of adhesive tape. It is then taped to an acupuncture meridian that is low in energy. The gold bead will pick up more energy from the surroundings and give the meridian a boost.
Colors also have an influence on health. Color is vibration; some colors are healing, some are stimulating, and others work against the healing process. Gold is warm and dilates the tissues and relaxes the injured area, permitting repair to be a little faster. Some kings and queens would wear a crown of gold on their heads or a gold band that would go around the entire head. In studying reflexology and acupuncture, you will find that the electrical meridians of the body are the electrical circuits of the body and are influenced by gold. Gold also can be used as a sort of jumper wire that allows the energy to go from one meridian that is normal and strong to one that is weaker and not functioning as well. It gives power to the weak or shocked meridians. Thus, it helps the body to heal itself in many respects.
Also, I found that colored stones were used for their healing properties as well. For example, a diamond would be cut so that it created prisms which would break the sunlight into different vibrations. These vibrations would be used by the body for healing. Remember, the body does the healing, not the medicines or chemicals or vibrations or anything else. All healing is a growth of new cells taking the place of old dead cells. Nothing can heal unless it can make cells.
Gold is believed to have a relaxing effect. When you feel something made of 24-karat gold it will have a soft, velvety texture. Nothing feels like pure gold. But it loses its effectiveness when combined with other metals.
Royalty put diamonds and emeralds in their crowns; they put rubies and other precious stones around their bodies. What made them precious? The fact that they helped heal and ease pain in the body. Only kings, noblemen and merchants could afford such luxuries as crowns, rings and bracelets. Gold and precious stones were not made for adornment at first, but were used as a preventive technique as well as a curing aid, adding energy to that part of the hand which reflexes areas of the body experiencing health problems.
Other minerals also have an effect upon the body. Here’s an experiment which will prove to you that your body has an influence on metal. Take several small pieces of metal: a regular steel sewing needle, an iron nail, a piece of copper, some silver, gold, and other types of metals. Tie a piece of string about six inches long to each of the pieces of metal, then take one of those pieces of string with metal tied to it, and hang it like you would a pendulum. Stand facing north, holding the string about a foot out in front of you. The piece of metal at the end of the string should be about level with your belly button. Just hold it there. Pretty soon you will begin to see it move or swing in certain directions. After you observe which way it swings, make a note of it. Face south, and you’ll find that it has a different swing. Try facing east and notice the difference again. Face west and notice the difference. Remember, it’s the same piece of metal, the same body, the same spot, but by facing in different directions you will find the metal pendulum will swing in different directions. The pendulum may swing in different directions for different people. Do that with each of the different metals you have. Your body and the environment have a definite effect on the metal. Likewise, when the metal touches you, your body has a reaction to the metal as well.
So, in conclusion, many of the ways of the past have been lost but not forgotten. Energies do exist; they do affect the body. Gold is precious, and its power and energy can be felt. Just put a pound of it in safe keeping and notice how good you feel-spiritually, mentally and physically. However, knowledge of energies and how they affect your health is more valuable than gold. If you don’t believe me, just ask a rich man who has lost his health.
Learn the power of the stones and improve your life NOW !!!
Just as an Abalone Shell provides safe shelter for abalone, it will also lend a protective, healing energy to your spirit. Shielding you from waves of negativity, the soothing energy of abalone shells is one full of peace, beauty, compassion and love. The Native Americans believe this shell to be a sacred shell and use it, along with sage, to carry messages to Heaven. Abalone is excellent to wear when you are in need of guidance in a relationship.
If your life constantly feels out of balance, with one aspect going well while another spins out of control, use agate to establish stability with its grounding energy. Connecting with your physical power, this crystal will slowly but surely help you to build up your strengths and diminish your weaknesses with acceptance. With increased concentration and confidence, the properties of agate make it easier to focus on what is good in your life, so that you can heal from mistakes and bring the harmony it instill in your spirit to everything you do.
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If your mind is polluted with toxic negativity, clean it up with Amazonite. This stone will restore your spirit to its most serene state of being by eliminating your worries, self-doubts and frustrations. Often, pain that we experienced in our past will create an energy block in our present. This block can manifest into a difficulty expressing yourself in relationships, or even into creative slumps at work. By flooding your heart and throat chakras with loving energy, amazonite opens you up to release that which has hurt you. Free of those energy blocks, you better express yourself in every area of life. That’s what makes this stone highly beneficial for artists.
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Amethyst is like a spa-day in a stone, it is the exact kind of relaxing energy that we could all use after a long day. Allow amethyst’s energy of contentment to sooth away the day-to-day stresses that keep you up at night. In working with the third eye and crown chakras, Amethyst indulges your intuitions. This not only means that amethyst will help your body give into innate desires like sound sleep and relaxation, but it will also work with your third eye to balance the mind with insightful solutions to problems.
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Your appetite for life, creative endeavors and passionate pursuits will feel nearly insatiable when overwhelmed by the exhilarating energy of Apatite. Working with the energy of this crystal helps you to not only recognize your ambitions, but chase after them with a newfound vigor. Let the inspirate this stirs within you, find new creative outlets.
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Anxiety is like a weed—if you ignore it, it will take over. Apophyllite lets you be proactive against anxiety by pinpointing its destructive qualities with the energy of calm. Get rid of overactive thoughts, repressed emotions and negative patterns by using apophyllite to redirect your attention from the mind to the body. As apophyllite cleanses the third eye and crown chakras with a sensation of love, devote your attention to breathing in peace and exhaling any useless negativity that you still harbor.
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Use Aquamarine to ride the positive waves toward closure, major life changes and a higher consciousness. The stress and fear that this stone washes away, leaves room peace and tranquility in their absence. Aquamarine protects the psyche from taking on dark vibrations and negative behavioral patterns. Easy is the essence of the smooth flowing energy of aquamarine.
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If you’re heading to Las Vegas, forget about lady luck—aventurine is the one you want by your side! The whimsical energy of this shimmering crystal is especially conducive to the power of plenty. While it’s playfully referred to as a gambler’s stone, Aventurine is helpful to everyone. Sometimes a gamble looks less like a game, and more like a fork in the road of your life; a time when you have to decide between what is sound and secure, or taking a risk. In connecting with the heart chakra, Aventurine graces the spirit with an easy sense of confidence. The excitement it stimulates can promote a more optimistic outlook that will make jumping out of your comfort zone less scary.
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Though Azurite gets its name from the word azure, meaning blue, the energy it blesses you with will have you feeling anything but blue. Azurite is often referred to as the “Stone of the Heavens,” as it aids in the pursuit of the heavenly self. It is believed to awaken psychic abilities, helping you to recognize intuition and spiritual guidance. It calms and relieves mental stress, helping you to clear your mind and dissolve any blocked energy. Native Americans valued it as a sacred stone for communication with Spirit Guides. The Mayans are also said to have used it for sacred and mystical communication.
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Secure under the dome of Black Tourmaline’s protection, not even the worst energy downer can burst your happy bubble. Black Tourmaline is one of the most powerful crystals for protection and elimination of negative energy. It helps to put an energetic boundary between you and others, so that you don’t pick up unwanted energies. When placed in the four corners of a room, Black Tourmaline seals the room with a protective shield. This formation assists in balancing out the energy and dispelling any energies of a lower vibration.
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Get your blood pumping with the revitalizing energy of Bloodstone. Let bloodstone fill you with a surge of courage, self-esteem, energy and protection so that you can enjoy living in the now. With the pure, upbeat energy of this crystal, you’ll make the most out of every moment.
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Fear of public speaking and fear of confrontations usually go hand in hand. If a clog in your throat chakra is holding you back, use the comforting energy of Blue Lace Agate to speak your truth. The relaxed peace of mind that blue lace agate establishes will promote insightful, authentic and articulate dialogue.
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Hit the ground running with the grounding and reenergizing properties of Bronzite. This protective stone will postmark negative energy “Return to Sender,” and make sure that the bad vibes of others don’t make their way to you. In harmonizing all chakras, bronzite stimulates the entire chakric field so every chakra is functioning at its highest potential. If you’re going through a difficult situation where your energy is depleted and negativity is everywhere, let bronzite give you the energy to fight through and be your bronze shield against whatever negativity comes your way.
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Carnelian is the life of the party. Creative and confident, the energy of carnelian motivates a rush of vibrancy within the sacral chakra to stimulate your inner star. Tapping into carnelian’s exciting properties will lend a sense of power that can prove especially beneficial for artists needing to break through creative blocks or those embarking on new projects + ambitions. Wear carnelian during a job interview to invoke the energies of opportunity and luck. With carnelian close, you’ll be sure to impress your prospects with your charm and vitality.
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The name Celestite comes from the Latin word for heavenly, and its stress relieving vibes will certainly feel like nirvana to a chaotic mind. Though it’s a high-vibrational crystal, the intensity of celestite’s uplifting nature is gentle enough to still be soothing. If you are experiencing anxiety from unfamiliar situations or difficult relationships, working with Celestite can bring clarity and aid in your ability to reconcile. By instilling you with a calm approach, you will be better equipped to handle whatever life brings you.
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If you are constantly looking toward the horizon, Chrysocolla is the energy your free spirit needs to stop dreaming about adventure and start one. Inspired by the energy of willpower, creativity, confidence and tranquility, you will feel motivated to transform your future ambitions into present realities. Use chrysocolla to commence a new beginning, and be on your way to happily ever after.
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Can’t handle the truth? End the pattern of denial and confront truths with the energy of Chrysoprase. Through a mix of compassion, forgiveness, increased conflict resolution capability and the abandonment of petty judgements, the properties of this crystal will create a mindset ready to take on any harsh truth. The kindness and love that chrysoprase also imbue you with in your heart and sacral chakras will give you a more optimistic and insightful point of view.
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Derived from the French word “citron” meaning lemon, this crystal’s vibe is anything but sour! Sweet is the essence of this fortune flourishing gem. The sunny attitude of citrine cultivates energy that is fertile for growth. In working with the solar plexus chakra, citrine warms the core to radiate power, centeredness, confidence and endurance throughout the body and mind. Citrine is unique because it is one of few stones that, rather than absorbing negative energy, clears it. It makes room for happiness and light so that the spirit is welcoming to a wide range of positive possibilities.
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Clear Quartz maybe a rockstar among crystals, but it’s no diva—it shares its spotlight. For those whose spirit needs illumination, clear quartz brings clarity to shadows within the mind. The reason there is so much lore surrounding the Clear Quartz is because of how intensely it resonates with the body. A universal healer, it links to all chakras to provide balance and harmony. Its ability to be programed for manifestation is unlike any other crystal. By elevating thoughts and perspective, it will help manifest your intentions like never before.
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Just like a dalmatian, Dalmatian Jasper can be your best friend when you’re feeling low, and a protective guard when your energy is under attack. Use this stone to lift your spirits with its innate happiness. Its playfulness will take your focus off of what is troubling your mind, and inspire a joy within the body that will enhance strength and creativity. If someone is attempting to push their negative vibes onto you, dalmatian jasper will signal their intentions to you, and infuse you with the positivity to overcome those frequencies.
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Instead of getting pushed around, bulk up your spiritual strength with Dumortierite and stay true to yourself. While dumortierite lends patience, it won’t let you mistake patience for complacency. The energy of this crystal guides you with insight in how best to communicate in confrontations, or cut toxic ties. As dumortierite makes you feel light and joyful, it also helps you to let go all the things that weigh you down.
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Embrace the energy of fluorite, and flow right into those sweet dreams. Let fluorite guide you from a state of anxiety to one of tranquility by cleansing both your mind and environment. This is an absorbent crystal that will neutralize all of the negativity around it. Sleeping near or meditating with fluorite ensures mental clarity, and harmony between chakras.
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Also known as the healer’s stone, tapping into the magical and restorative essence of Fuchsite is like sprinkling fairy dust over your emotional wounds. While the energy of fuchsite will restore your spiritual health, it has no qualms about having to break and reset unhealthy mental constructs in order to do so. If your tendency is to blame others and pose as the victim, or to ignore your own problems as you attempt to fix those around you, fuchsite will force you to confront these negative habits. Though it may sound harsh, the love, self-worth and sense of independence that fuchsite infuses you with will ease the sting of any realizations.
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Not all energy has to come in a Venti-sized cup; reenergize the crystal way with garnet, and you’ll have all of the vitality without the impending crash. By arousing the chi, or life force, within the physical body, garnet encourages you to go out and smell roses. Seize the day and all of your potential with help of this stone for enhancing health, passion and pleasure.
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To ensure a golden future, embrace the protective energy of Goldstone. Goldstone is made from quartz and sand glass, and infused with copper particles to give it its shimmery appearance. The sparkles of Goldstone are symbolic of light that can always be found in the darkness. It deflects unwanted energies and is highly regarded in the spirit realm as a protective mineral.
Hematite tells it like it is. If you’re spinning out of control, or spending all your time going over things in your mind on constant replay, hematite is going to give you a reality check. It brings you out of your mind and back down to earth. Hematite’s energy focuses on the body, and it teaches us to do the same. Rather than over analyzing due to stress or anxiety, use hematite to connect to your root chakra so that you can stay grounded and just be.
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Jade is like that outfit you wear on first dates or that necklace you wear on job interviews—it always brings good luck. Through awakening a new outlook in the third eye chakra, jade opens you up to prosperity and abundance. The wisdom that this stone can bring has been admired since ancient civilizations, and can still lend an insightful energy to your modern day problems. Through instilling a sense of peace and purity within the mind, jade guides the spirit until it has a clear vision of who you are truly meant to be.
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Instead of letting your fears dictate who you are and what you do, embody the fierce strength of this crocodile-patterned stone to overcome those anxieties once and for all. Kambaba Jasper will inspire a whole new mental outlook as you become aware of talents and capabilities that you never knew you had. This stone can transform your life if you embrace the direction it points you in, which will often be the scariest and most rewarding.
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Instead of letting your fears dictate who you are and what you do, embody the fierce strength of this crocodile-patterned stone to overcome those anxieties once and for all. Kambaba Jasper will inspire a whole new mental outlook as you become aware of talents and capabilities that you never knew you had. This stone can transform your life if you embrace the direction it points you in, which will often be the scariest and most rewarding.
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With the mystical energy of labradorite, sparks of neon will illuminate the path to your destiny. Labradorite is a stone of magic and curiosity. Wearing or holding Labradorite helps you tap into a higher state of consciousness. It’s a protective stone as well, so it will keep your energy body grounded, while allowing you to explore the expanded states of the universe. By connecting to and healing all chakras, it boosts mental and spiritual power. Labradorite opens you up, forcing you to become self-aware enough to see what you want your true intentions to be.
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Realize your spiritual potential with the high vibrational energy of Lapis Lazuli. Full of the wisdom and awareness that this stone brings, your soul will be ready to embark on a journey of awakening. Strive toward enlightenment as you pursue your true destiny, and leave pettiness and stress behind. This is a powerful stone for broadening your understanding, and should be used especially by those having issues with self-expression.
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Sometimes we get hurt, and no matter how hard we try, we can’t seem to move past it. Leopard Skin Jasper surrounds you with self-healing energy to help you to lick those wounds away, and get back to most powerful self. Through supplying ground energy to your base and root chakras, this crystal will take you out of your head and clear the insecurity and fears that reside there. Instead, get realigned with your simplest, most important goals.
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Enter the next phase of your life with the help of Lepidolite. Through the transformational energy of this crystal, you can recognize where you want to be in life and what you need to change in order to get there. Lepidolite will guide you from chaotic stages of life, toward calm times of consistent progress and positivity. While the lithium in this stone is said to be good for those with turbulent emotions, it’s beneficial for anyone who is in need of a sense of stability. Transitions are tough, but with lepidolite to provide tranquility and balance, the journey can be a little bit easier.
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Tough love from a tough crystal, Malachite is the friend you go to when you need that unfiltered relationship advice. If some reason or another, something always seems to go wrong in your relationships, Malachite can cleanse the chakras and bring you to a realization about what’s not working. It’s one of the most powerful transformational crystals for the heart. The emotional balance it provides will encourage you to take the action you need to remove negative patterns and enhance your transformational energy.
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Embrace your wanderlust and let Mookaite be your spiritual compass, pointing you in the direction of adventure. Awaken your true potential with the energy of this stone, and pursue the passions you’ve put on hold. The willpower that mookaite stimulates in your solar plexus and root chakras will rouse in you a desire to explore new activities. Its exciting, yet comforting energy makes for a great travel companion for those on a solo journey.
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The milky radiance of this crystal represents tenderness, and is believed to bring lovers closer together. Moonstone is a magical stone that connects you to your divine feminine and inner Goddess. It helps you unlock the energy of the Moon that resides within you to keep you in a more balanced state. Moonstone acts as a guide to help you do what’s necessary to become more balanced, healthy and in sync.
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Mirror, mirror, on the wall, who is the most self-aware of them all? With black obsidian in hand, it’s probably you. Facing the good, the bad, and the ugly parts of ourselves is hard, but obsidian makes it easier. Through showing you a reflection of your true self, obsidian forces you to accept yourself entirely. It connects to the root chakra to ground you during contemplation. Working with black obsidian will assist you in cutting the stress and negative patterns from your life by first bringing them to your attention. As you see what needs to be expelled from your life, obsidian rewards you by absorbing that toxic energy. No wonder they call it the stone of truth!
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Bring in the tide of high vibes with Ocean Jasper. Detox from the stress of life and allow the energy of ocean jasper to assuage your overburdened mind with positivity. Embrace and enjoy your journey with other humans, and let happiness be the current you flow to. When difficulties arise, ocean jasper will help your to avoid a crash by lending you the insight to peacefully navigate around them.
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Sometimes, whether in our work life or our relationships, it can feel like we’re walking a tight rope. Adopting the energy of Onyx let’s you breathe easier, giving you the balance, confidence and protection to take the next step. Lending you strength of mind, onyx will help you to see what is weighing you down and release it from your life. By fortifying your decision making capabilities, onyx encourages you to stop concentrating on the rope or the potential to fall, and instead look forward at the bright future ahead of you.
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Shower yourself with the love and positivity of Orange Calcite to wash away your fears and negativity. Holding onto sadness from your past only ruins your present. Let that pain go down the drain, and lather up with the revitalizing energy of orange calcite instead. Not only will it balance your emotions and heal your wounds, orange calcite will activate your sacral chakra for enhanced creativity as well.
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Skip being green with envy, and use the energy of Peridot to become green with abundance. Resentment doesn’t look good on anybody. Peridot helps you to ditch toxic emotions of jealousy, spite and stress, and replace them with insight, confidence and a radiant sense of purpose. The beauty of this energy will shine through you, as it washes you with powerful cleansing properties that will leave you with a lighter, more pure essence.
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Understand the bigger picture more clearly with the help of Picture Jasper. As this crystal nurtures and balances your emotions, it grounds your base and root chakras with its earthly energy. This provides you with the calm wisdom to dispel fears, and reflect on situations with wisdom.
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Often referred to as “Fool’s Gold” for its resemblance to real gold, Pyrite may not have the monetary value of its doppelgänger, but it is a metaphysical treasure. In addition to attracting wealth, abundance and good luck, it’s believed to hold a strong protective energy. The reflective nature of pyrite being more than just physical, it has the ability to show you which of behaviors are holding you back. This elevates your consciousness to be more aware of what you need to change in order to vibrate the intention of abundance on the same frequency as pyrite.
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Red Jasper almost seems to hug you with its comforting essence. Jasper’s energy is the support you can lean on when stress is tearing you down. As a supreme nurturer, jasper soothes the mind of anxiety so that it can focus on other things. Jasper’s encouragement helps you to take on new pursuits, deal with conflicts and approach problems with creative solutions.
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The self-love stone, Rhodochrosite will combat feelings of inadequacy with a treat yourself mentality of self-worth. You deserve the love you receive, and Rhodochrosite energy helps you to accept that by filling you up with love and joy for yourself. This stone of empowerment will be your cheerleader, infuse your heart chakra with the courage and positivity to take on new challenges.
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Keep calm and carry on is the message that rhodonite inspires within the heart chakra. When stirring feelings are causing waves of turmoil in your spiritual body, tame the emotional seas with rhodonite’s love, grounding and insight. Discover new passions, attract a more fulfilling kind of love and boost humanitarian efforts with the help of this crystal for calm connectedness.
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If thoughts about your past are haunting your present, use Rhyolite to tap into your inner zen and stop thinking about “back then.” The self-esteem boosting energy of this crystal helps foster acceptance and emotional release. With a profound wisdom, you can see the past through a new lens, and take the lessons you learn to create positive changes for your future.
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See the world through rose tinted glasses by tapping into the universal love of rose quartz. This stone will open up your heart chakra to every kind of love that you need—whether it’s self-love, familial love, friendship love, love for humanity or romantic love. As a flush of compassion, happiness, forgiveness and peace pulses through you, rose quartz will assist you in ease your grip on toxic emotions. With this sense of release, your spirit can finally be free of petty negativity.
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As if filtering out negativity and psychic attacks through its complex network of needle-like rutiles, Rutilated Quartz ensures that only the purest vibes get through. If you’re prone to holding in frustrations or resentments, working with rutilated quartz may be just the energy you need to forgive and let go. While supportive, the energy of rutilated quartz will force you to bring issues to the surface so that they can be dealt with. That may sound intimidating, but rutilated quartz’s ability to help you better deal with conflicts also relieves the fear and anxiety you may have going into them.
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The pure, high vibrational energy of Selenite is like liquid light. As it flows through your space, it brightens the energy of everyone and everything within it. Selenite has the ability to cleanse, purify and align you with your highest potential. It shifts your aura and energetic vibration to attune you with a higher energy. Low vibrational energies attract negativity on the same level. Raising your vibration is essential to keeping feelings of grief, fear, anger and anxiety out of your mental and physical space.
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If an inability to get a handle on your hormones has you reminiscing about your teenage years in all the wrong ways, use Serpentine to bring back the balance. Swings are fun, but mood swings are anything but. Serpentine helps to clear out and release the dense areas of the chakras so that healing can occur. It helps you to take responsibility for your life and know your life is what you create it to be. Serpentine serves as a gentle reminder that you can always reach for the stars and obtain your goals. It can also be used to attract and manifest anything you want in life, whether its abundance, prosperity, love or emotional healing!
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Shungite is like the friend in romantic comedies who the love interest doesn’t realize is amazing until 60 minutes into the movie. Touted as the Miracle Stone of the 21st Century, shungite has been around for an estimated 2 billion years, but it wasn’t until the 1996 Nobel Prize-winning research that discovered antioxidant fullerenes within the stone, that people began to wake up to shungite’s healing potential. It is now the go-to stone for EMF protection, purification and detoxification of the body, as well as providing general healing for the emotional well being. You can even place shungite in your water to create a purified elixir!
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Smoky Quartz isn’t the kind of energy that’s going to let you sit in a dark, stuffy room and pout. This crystal wills you to get up, draw the curtain to positive light, and open the windows to let the air of negativity out. If something no longer serves you, smoky quartz gives you the clarity to let it go. Working with Smoky Quartz helps you to overcome negative emotions such as stress, fear, anger, jealousy, and even feelings of depression. Elevate your mood with this stone that helps to keep both feet on the ground, and remain balanced in any situation.
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The way Sodalite grounds you with energies like self-esteem, acceptance and trust will have you begging to get grounded. This harmony inducing stone reestablishes the connection between the higher mind and the body, releasing the fears and tensions held in both. Use sodalite’s encouraging energy to strengthen bonds with others and bring balance into every area of your life.
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Just as the sun brings life to all the living things on Earth, Sunstone will breathe life into your creative spirit. Sunstone promotes energy, vitality, and creativity. The effervescent energy of sunstone reminds you of the joy that creating is meant to inspire. This stone nourishes the sacral and solar plexus chakras to breed confidence, power and leadership within your being. Free from beneath the blanket of self-doubt, your creativity will finally flourish with the power of the sun.
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Tiger’s Eye gets its name from its amber hues, but its ability to bestow fierce focus and primal power only bolsters its tiger-like reputation. This crystal helps you to see through a fresh set of eyes, so that you can gain clarity on situations that have become blurry or confusing. Tiger’s eye shifts your outlook so that you can gain a deeper understanding of yourself. Is there a new hobby you’d like to try? A solution to a problem you haven’t considered? An aspect to yourself that you haven’t indulged? Tiger’s eye connects to the solar plexus and sacral chakras to ground you in the power you need to pursue those ventures.
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The pillars of tourmaline embedded within Tourmalinated Quartz remind us that we all have pillars of strength within us that we can lean on when we feel weak. With the clarity and energy amplification of quartz, and the protection of tourmaline, you’ll feel a resurge of energy that will encourage you to conquer your self-sabotaging behaviours and thoughts. This stone is all about recognizing the power you have within yourself to solve or deal with any problem in your life. Tap into tourmalinated quartz when you need to harmonize your mind and spirit, and attract the kind of luck and abundance that stem from making positive life decisions.
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Establish strong spiritual roots with Tree Agate, and wavering emotions will never be enough to tear you down. Those looking for stability and nurturing protection will find solace in the gentle, but sturdy security of tree agate. Tune into the energy of Earth’s ancient trees with this crystal for perseverance, and you’ll learn how to weather any storm. Not only rich in inner peace, the abundance that this crystal attracts will also bring new opportunities your way.
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Said by Native American cultures to be the bridge between heaven and Earth, Turquoise, known as the “master Healer,” provides a path to your vibrationally highest self. Many Native American cultures believe that turquoise helps to connect the mind to the infinite possibilities of the Universe. As a throat Chakra stone, turquoise helps to foster honest and open communication from the heart. In working to protect and align the chakras, turquoise strengthens the entire mind and body in the process.
Yoga is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
There is a broad variety of Yoga schools, practices, and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Among the most well-known types of yoga are Hatha yoga and Rāja yoga.
The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions, it is mentioned in the Rigveda, but most likely developed around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, in ancient India’s ascetic and śramaṇa movements. The chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Hindu Upanishads and Buddhist Pāli Canon, but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra.
Yoga gurus from India later introduced yoga to the west, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century. In the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy.
Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma, and heart disease.
In Vedic Sanskrit, yoga means “to add”, “to join”, “to unite”, or “to attach” in its most common literal sense. By figurative extension from the yoking or harnessing of oxen or horses, the word took on broader meanings such as “employment, use, application, performance” . All further developments of the sense of this word are post-Vedic. More prosaic moods such as “exertion”, “endeavour”, “zeal”, and “diligence” are also found in Indian epic poetry.
There are very many compound words containing yoga in Sanskrit. Yoga can take on meanings such as “connection”, “contact”, “union”, “method”, “application”, “addition” and “performance”. In simpler words, Yoga also means “combined”. For example, guṇáyoga means “contact with a cord”; chakráyoga has a medical sense of “applying a splint or similar instrument by means of pulleys “; chandráyoga has the astronomical sense of “conjunction of the moon with a constellation”; puṃyoga is a grammatical term expressing “connection or relation with a man”, etc. Thus, bhaktiyoga means “devoted attachment” in the monotheistic Bhakti movement. The term kriyāyoga has a grammatical sense, meaning “connection with a verb”. But the same compound is also given a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras, designating the “practical” aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the “union with the supreme” due to performance of duties in everyday life
According to Pāṇini, a 6th-century BCE Sanskrit grammarian, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau . In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi .
According to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau . Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini .
The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha, although the exact definition of what form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated.
According to Jacobsen, “Yoga has five principal meanings:
According to David Gordon White, from the 5th century CE onward, the core principles of “yoga” were more or less in place, and variations of these principles developed in various forms over time:
# Yoga, is a meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation; illustration of this principle is found in Hindu texts such as the Bhagavad Gita and Yogasutras, in a number of Buddhist Mahāyāna works, as well as Jain texts;
# Yoga, as the raising and expansion of consciousness from oneself to being coextensive with everyone and everything; these are discussed in sources such as in Hinduism Vedic literature and its Epic Mahābhārata, Jainism Praśamaratiprakarana, and Buddhist Nikaya texts;
# Yoga, as a path to omniscience and enlightened consciousness enabling one to comprehend the impermanent and permanent reality; examples are found in Hinduism Nyaya and Vaisesika school texts as well as Buddhism Mādhyamaka texts, but in different ways;
# Yoga, as a technique for entering into other bodies, generating multiple bodies, and the attainment of other supernatural accomplishments; these are, states White, described in Tantric literature of Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as the Buddhist Sāmaññaphalasutta; James Mallinson, however, disagrees and suggests that such fringe practices are far removed from the mainstream Yoga’s goal as meditation-driven means to liberation in Indian religions.
White clarifies that the last principle relates to legendary goals of “yogi practice”, different from practical goals of “yoga practice,” as they are viewed in South Asian thought and practice since the beginning of the Common Era, in the various Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain philosophical schools.
The term “yoga” has been applied to a variety of practices and methods, including Jain and Buddhist practices. In Hinduism these include Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Karma Yoga, Laya Yoga and Hatha Yoga.
The so-called Raja Yoga refers to Ashtanga Yoga, the eight limbs to be practiced to attain samadhi, as described in the Yoga Sutras of Pantajali. The term raja yoga originally referred to the ultimate goal of yoga, which is usually samadhi, but was popularised by Vivekananda as the common name for Ashtanga Yoga.
Yoga is considered as a philosophical school in Hinduism. Yoga, in this context, is one of the six āstika schools of Hinduism .
Due to the influence of Vivekananda, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are nowadays considered as the foundational scripture of classical yoga, a status which it only acquired in the 20th century. Before the twentieth century, other works were considered as the most central works, such as the Bhagavad Gita and the Yoga Vasistha, while Tantric Yoga and Hatha Yoga prevailed over Ashtanga Yoga.
Yoga as described in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali refers to Ashtanga yoga. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is considered as a central text of the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy, It is often called “Rāja yoga”, “yoga of the kings,” a term which originally referred to the ultimate, royal goal of yoga, which is usually samadhi, but was popularised by Vivekananda as the common name for Ashtanga Yoga.
Ashtanga yoga incorporates epistemology, metaphysics, ethical practices, systematic exercises and self-development techniques for body, mind and spirit. the Yoga school of Hinduism accepts the concept of a “personal, yet essentially inactive, deity” or “personal god”. Along with its epistemology and metaphysical foundations, the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy incorporates ethical precepts and an introspective way of life focused on perfecting one’s self physically, mentally and spiritually, with the ultimate goal being kaivalya .
Hatha yoga, also called hatha vidyā, is a kind of yoga focusing on physical and mental strength building exercises and postures described primarily in three texts of Hinduism:
# Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Svātmārāma
# Shiva Samhita, author unknown
# Gheranda Samhita by Gheranda
Many scholars also include the preceding Goraksha Samhita authored by Gorakshanath of the 11th century in the above list.
Vajrayana Buddhism, founded by the Indian Mahasiddhas, has a series of asanas and pranayamas, such as tummo See also ‘tantra’ below.
Buddhist meditation encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that aim to develop mindfulness, concentration, supramundane powers, tranquility, and insight.
Core techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts and have proliferated and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward Enlightenment and Nirvana. The closest words for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism are bhāvanā and jhāna/dhyāna.
Jain meditation has been the central practice of spirituality in Jainism along with the Three Jewels. Meditation in Jainism aims at realizing the self, attain salvation, take the soul to complete freedom. It aims to reach and to remain in the pure state of soul which is believed to be pure conscious, beyond any attachment or aversion. The practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer . Jain meditation can be broadly categorized to the auspicious Dharmya Dhyana and Shukla Dhyana and inauspicious Artta and Raudra Dhyana.
Samuel states that Tantrism is a contested concept. Tantra yoga may be described, according to Samuel, as practices in 9th to 10th century Buddhist and Hindu texts, which included yogic practices with elaborate deity visualizations using geometrical arrays and drawings, fierce male and particularly female deities, transgressive life stage related rituals, extensive use of chakras and mantras, and sexual techniques, all aimed to help one’s health, long life and liberation.
The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization and pre-Vedic Eastern India, the Vedic period, and the śramaṇa movement. According to Gavin Flood, continuities may exist between those various traditions:
Pre-philosophical speculations of yoga begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE. Between 200 BCE–500 CE philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga began to emerge. The Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Yoga came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid 19th century along with other topics of Indian philosophy.
Yoga may have pre-Vedic elements. Some state yoga originated in the Indus Valley Civilization. Marshall, Eliade According to Geoffrey Samuel, “Our best evidence to date suggests that practices developed in the same ascetic circles as the early sramana movements, probably in around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE.”
According to Zimmer, Yoga philosophy is reckoned to be part of the non-Vedic system, which also includes the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, Jainism and Buddhism: ” does not derive from Brahman-Aryan sources, but reflects the cosmology and anthropology of a much older pre-Aryan upper class of northeastern India – being rooted in the same subsoil of archaic metaphysical speculation as Yoga, Sankhya, and Buddhism, the other non-Vedic Indian systems.”
The first use of the root of word “yoga” is in hymn 5.81.1 of the Rig Veda, a dedication to rising Sun-god in the morning, where it has been interpreted as “yoke” or “yogically control”.
Rigveda, however, does not describe yoga and there is little evidence as to what the practices were.
Vedic ascetic practices
Ascetic practices, concentration and bodily postures used by Vedic priests to conduct yajna, might have been precursors to yoga. Vratya, a group of ascetics mentioned in the Atharvaveda, emphasized on bodily postures which may have evolved into yogic asanas. Techniques for controlling breath and vital energies are mentioned in the Brahmanas and the Atharvaveda. Nasadiya Sukta of the Rig Veda suggests the presence of an early contemplative tradition.
Yoga concepts begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE such as the Pali Canon, the middle Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata.
The first known appearance of the word “yoga”, with the same meaning as the modern term, is in the Katha Upanishad, where it is defined as the steady control of the senses, which along with cessation of mental activity, leading to a supreme state. It is the earliest literary work that highlights the fundamentals of yoga. White states:
The hymns in Book 2 of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, another late first millennium BCE text, states a procedure in which the body is held in upright posture, the breath is restrained and mind is meditatively focussed, preferably inside a cave or a place that is simple, plain, of silence or gently flowing water, with no noises nor harsh winds.
In addition to the Yoga discussion in above Principal Upanishads, twenty Yoga Upanishads as well as related texts such as Yoga Vasistha, composed in 1st and 2nd millennium CE, discuss Yoga methods.
Sutras of Hindu philosophies
Yoga is discussed in the ancient foundational Sutras of Hindu philosophy. The Vaiśeṣika Sūtra of the Vaisheshika school of Hinduism, dated to have been composed sometime between 6th and 2nd century BCE discusses Yoga. According to Johannes Bronkhorst, an Indologist known for his studies on early Buddhism and Hinduism and a professor at the University of Lausanne, Vaiśeṣika Sūtra describes Yoga as “a state where the mind resides only in the soul and therefore not in the senses”.
Similarly, Brahma sutras – the foundational text of the Vedanta school of Hinduism, discusses yoga in its sutra 2.1.3, 2.1.223 and others. and its sutras assert that yoga is a means to gain “subtlety of body” and other powers. The Nyaya sutras – the foundational text of the Nyaya school, variously estimated to have been composed between the 6th-century BCE and 2nd-century CE, discusses yoga in sutras 4.2.38–50. This ancient text of the Nyaya school includes a discussion of yogic ethics, dhyana, samadhi, and among other things remarks that debate and philosophy is a form of yoga.
Macedonian historical texts
Alexander the Great reached India in the 4th century BCE. Along with his army, he took Greek academics with him who later wrote memoirs about geography, people and customs they saw. One of Alexander’s companion was Onesicritus, quoted in Book 15, Sections 63–65 by Strabo, who describes yogins of India. Onesicritus claims those Indian yogins practiced aloofness and “different postures – standing or sitting or lying naked – and motionless”.
Onesicritus also mentions his colleague Calanus trying to meet them, who is initially denied audience, but later invited because he was sent by a “king curious of wisdom and philosophy”. He notes: Early known Buddhist sources like the Majjhima Nikāya mention meditation, while the Anguttara Nikāya describes Jhāyins that resemble early Hindu descriptions of Muni, Kesins and meditating ascetics, but these meditation-practices are not called yoga in these texts. The earliest known specific discussion of yoga in the Buddhist literature, as understood in modern context, is from the third- to fourth-century CE scriptures of the Buddhist Yogācāra school and fourth- to fifth-century Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa.
A yoga system that predated the Buddhist school is Jain yoga. But since Jain sources postdate Buddhist ones, it is difficult to distinguish between the nature of the early Jain school and elements derived from other schools.
The early Buddhist texts describe meditative practices and states, some of which the Buddha borrowed from the śramaṇa tradition. The Pali canon contains three passages in which the Buddha describes pressing the tongue against the palate for the purposes of controlling hunger or the mind, depending on the passage. However, there is no mention of the tongue being inserted into the nasopharynx as in true khecarī mudrā. The Buddha used a posture where pressure is put on the perineum with the heel, similar to even modern postures used to stimulate Kundalini.
Uncertainty with chronology
Alexander Wynne, author of The Origin of Buddhist Meditation, observes that formless meditation and elemental meditation might have originated in the Upanishadic tradition. The earliest reference to meditation is in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads.
The Bhagavad Gita, uses the term “yoga” extensively in a variety of ways. In addition to an entire chapter dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation, it introduces three prominent types of yoga:
Karma yoga: The yoga of action.
Bhakti yoga: The yoga of devotion.
The Gita consists of 18 chapters and 700 shlokas, Some scholars divide the Gita into three sections, with the first six chapters with 280 shlokas dealing with Karma yoga, the middle six containing 209 shlokas with Bhakti yoga, and the last six chapters with 211 shlokas as Jnana yoga; however, this is rough because elements of karma, bhakti and jnana are found in all chapters.
Description of an early form of yoga called nirodhayoga is contained in the Mokshadharma section of the 12th chapter of the Mahabharata. The verses of the section are dated to c. 300–200 BCE. Nirodhayoga emphasizes progressive withdrawal from the contents of empirical consciousness such as thoughts, sensations etc. until purusha is realized. Terms like vichara, viveka and others which are similar to Patanjali’s terminology are mentioned, but not described. There is no uniform goal of yoga mentioned in the Mahabharata. Separation of self from matter, perceiving Brahman everywhere, entering into Brahman etc. are all described as goals of yoga. Samkhya and yoga are conflated together and some verses describe them as being identical.
Mahabharata defines the purpose of yoga as the experience of uniting the individual ātman with the universal Brahman that pervades all things.
This period witnessed many texts of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism discussing and systematically compiling yoga methods and practices. Of these, Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras are considered as a key work.
During the period between the Mauryan and the Gupta era philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga began to emerge.
Many traditions in India began to adopt systematic methodology by about first century CE. Of these, Samkhya was probably one of the oldest philosophies to begin taking a systematic form. Patanjali systematized Yoga, building them on the foundational metaphysics of Samkhya. In the early works, the Yoga principles appear together with the Samkhya ideas. Vyasa’s commentary on the Yoga Sutras, also called the Samkhyapravacanabhasya, describes the relation between the two systems. The two schools have some differences as well. Yoga accepted the conception of “personal god”, while Samkhya developed as a rationalist, non-theistic/atheistic system of Hindu philosophy. Sometimes Patanjali’s system is referred to as Seshvara Samkhya in contradistinction to Kapila’s Nirivara Samkhya.
The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that “the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord.”
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
In Hindu philosophy, yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox philosophical schools. Karel Werner, author of Yoga And Indian Philosophy, believes that the process of systematization of yoga which began in the middle and Yoga Upanishads culminated with the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
There are numerous parallels in the concepts in ancient Samkhya, Yoga and Abhidharma Buddhist schools of thought, particularly from 2nd century BCE to 1st century AD, notes Larson. Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras is a synthesis of these three traditions. From Samkhya, Yoga Sutras adopt the “reflective discernment” of prakrti and purusa, its metaphysical rationalism, as well its three epistemic methods to gaining reliable knowledge. The verses of Yoga Sutras are terse. Many later Indian scholars studied them and published their commentaries, such as the Vyasa Bhashya . Patanjali’s yoga is also referred to as Raja yoga. Patanjali defines the word “yoga” in his second sutra:
– Yoga Sutras 1.2
This terse definition hinges on the meaning of three Sanskrit terms. I. K. Taimni translates it as “Yoga is the inhibition of the modifications of the mind “. Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as “Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff from taking various forms .” Edwin Bryant explains that, to Patanjali, “Yoga essentially consists of meditative practices culminating in attaining a state of consciousness free from all modes of active or discursive thought, and of eventually attaining a state where consciousness is unaware of any object external to itself, that is, is only aware of its own nature as consciousness unmixed with any other object.”
If the meaning of yoga is understood as the practice of nirodha, then its goal is “the unqualified state of niruddha “, according to Baba Hari Dass. In that context, “yoga implies duality ; the result of yoga is the nondual state”, and “as the union of the lower self and higher Self. The nondual state is characterized by the absence of individuality; it can be described as eternal peace, pure love, Self-realization, or liberation.”
Patanjali’s writing also became the basis for a system referred to as “Ashtanga Yoga” . This eight-limbed concept is derived from the 29th Sutra of the Book 2 of Yoga Sutras. They are:
# Yama : Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, and Aparigraha . Santosha, Tapas, Svādhyāya, and Ishvara-Pranidhana . Yoga disputes the monism of Advaita Vedanta.
The Yoga Yajnavalkya is a classical treatise on yoga attributed to the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya. It takes the form of a dialogue between Yajnavalkya and Gargi, a renowned philosopher. The text contains 12 chapters and its origin has been traced to the period between the second century BCE and fourth century CE. Many yoga texts like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Yoga Kundalini and the Yoga Tattva Upanishads have borrowed verses from or make frequent references to the Yoga Yajnavalkya. The Yoga Yajnavalkya discusses eight yoga Asanas – Swastika, Gomukha, Padma, Vira, Simha, Bhadra, Mukta and Mayura, numerous breathing exercises for body cleansing, and meditation.
According to Tattvarthasutra, 2nd century CE Jain text, yoga is the sum of all the activities of mind, speech and body. as well as one of the essentials—samyak caritra—in the path to liberation. Acarya Haribhadra and Acarya Hemacandra mention the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion. The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear a resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating a history of strong cross-fertilization between these traditions.
Mainstream Hinduism’s influence on Jain yoga is noticed as Haribhadra founded his eightfold yoga and aligned it with Patanjali’s eightfold yoga.
In the late phase of Indian antiquity, on the eve of the development of Classical Hinduism, the
Yogacara movement arises during the Gupta period .
Yogacara received the name as it provided a “yoga,” a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva. The yogacara sect teaches “yoga” as a way to reach enlightenment.
Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Hatha yoga emerged in this period.
The Bhakti movement was a development in medieval Hinduism which advocated the concept of a personal God . The movement was initiated by the Alvars of South India in the 6th to 9th centuries, and it started gaining influence throughout India by the 12th to 15th centuries. Shaiva and Vaishnava bhakti traditions integrated aspects of Yoga Sutras, such as the practical meditative exercises, with devotion. Bhagavata Purana elucidates the practice of a form of yoga called viraha bhakti. Viraha bhakti emphasizes one pointed concentration on Krishna.
Tantra is a genre of yoga that arose in India no later than the 5th century CE. George Samuel states, “Tantra” is a contested term, but may be considered as a school whose practices appeared in mostly complete form in Buddhist and Hindu texts by about 10th century CE. Over its history, some ideas of Tantra school influenced the Hindu, Bon, Buddhist, and Jain traditions. Elements of Tantric yoga rituals were adopted by and influenced state functions in medieval Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms in East and Southeast Asia.
By the turn of the first millennium, hatha yoga emerged from tantra. They were later translated into Chinese and other Asian languages, helping spread ideas of Tantric Buddhism. The Buddhist text Hevajra Tantra and Caryāgiti introduced hierarchies of chakras. Yoga is a significant practice in Tantric Buddhism.
The earliest references to hatha yoga are in Buddhist works dating from the eighth century. The earliest definition of hatha yoga is found in the 11th century Buddhist text Vimalaprabha, which defines it in relation to the center channel, bindu etc. Hatha yoga synthesizes elements of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras with posture and breathing exercises. It marks the development of asanas into the full body ‘postures’ now in popular usage and, along with its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word yoga today.
Various yogic groups had become prominent in Punjab in the 15th and 16th century, when Sikhism was in its nascent stage. Compositions of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, describe many dialogues he had with Jogis, a Hindu community which practiced yoga. Guru Nanak rejected the austerities, rites and rituals connected with Hatha Yoga. He propounded the path of Sahaja yoga or Nama yoga instead. The Guru Granth Sahib states:
Reception in the West
Yoga came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid-19th century along with other topics of Indian philosophy. In the context of this budding interest, N. C. Paul published his Treatise on Yoga Philosophy in 1851.
The first Hindu teacher to actively advocate and disseminate aspects of yoga to a western audience, Swami Vivekananda, toured Europe and the United States in the 1890s. The reception which Swami Vivekananda received built on the active interest of intellectuals, in particular the New England Transcendentalists, among them R. W. Emerson, who drew on German Romanticism and the interest of philosophers and scholars like G.W.F. Hegel, the brothers August Wilhelm Schlegel and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Max Mueller, Arthur Schopenhauer and others who had interests in things Indian.
Theosophists also had a large influence on the American public’s view of Yoga. Esoteric views current at the end of the 19th century provided a further basis for the reception of Vedanta and of Yoga with its theory and practice of correspondence between the spiritual and the physical. The reception of Yoga and of Vedanta thus entwined with each other and with the currents of religious and philosophical reform and transformation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. M. Eliade, himself rooted in the Romanian currents of these traditions, brought a new element into the reception of Yoga with the strong emphasis on Tantric Yoga in his seminal book: Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. With the introduction of the Tantra traditions and philosophy of Yoga, the conception of the “transcendent” to be attained by Yogic practice shifted from experiencing the “transcendent” in the mind to the body itself.
The American born yogi by the name of Pierre Arnold Bernard, after his travels through the lands of Kashmir and Bengal, founded the Tantrik Order of America in 1905. His teachings gave many westerners their first glimpse into the practices of yoga and tantra.
The modern scientific study of yoga began with the works of N. C. Paul and Major D. Basu in the late 19th century, and then continued in the 20th century with Sri Yogendra and Swami Kuvalayananda. Western medical researchers came to Swami Kuvalayananda’s Kaivalyadhama Health and Yoga Research Center, starting in 1928, to study Yoga as a science.
The West, in the early 21st century typically associates the term “yoga” with Hatha yoga and its asanas or as a form of exercise. During the 1910s and 1920s in the USA, yoga suffered a period of bad publicity due largely to the backlash against immigration, a rise in puritanical values, and a number of scandals. In the 1930s and 1940s yoga began to gain more public acceptance as a result of celebrity endorsement. In the 1950s the United States saw another period of paranoia against yoga,
Teachers of Hatha yoga who were active in the west in this period included B.K.S. Iyengar, K. Pattabhi Jois, Swami Vishnu-devananda, and Swami Satchidananda . Yogi Bhajan brought Kundalini Yoga to the United States in 1969. Comprehensive, classical teachings of Ashtanga Yoga, Samkhya, the subtle body theory, Fitness Asanas, and tantric elements were included in the yoga teachers training by Baba Hari Dass, in the United States and Canada.
A second “yoga boom” followed in the 1980s, as Dean Ornish, a follower of Swami Satchidananda, connected yoga to heart health, legitimizing yoga as a purely physical system of health exercises outside of counter-culture or esotericism circles, and unconnected to any religious denomination.
Since 2001, the popularity of yoga in the USA has risen constantly. The number of people who practiced some form of yoga has grown from 4 million to 20 million . It has drawn support from world leaders such as Barack Obama who stated, “Yoga has become a universal language of spiritual exercise in the United States, crossing many lines of religion and cultures,… Every day, millions of people practice yoga to improve their health and overall well-being. That’s why we’re encouraging everyone to take part in PALA, so show your support for yoga and answer the challenge”.
The American College of Sports Medicine supports the integration of yoga into the exercise regimens of healthy individuals as long as properly-trained professionals deliver instruction. The College cites yoga’s promotion of “profound mental, physical and spiritual awareness” and its benefits as a form of stretching, and as an enhancer of breath control and of core strength.
Exercise and health applications
Yoga has been studied and is increasingly recommended to promote relaxation, reduce stress and some medical conditions such as premenstrual syndrome in Europe as well as in the United States.
In 2015 the Australian Government’s Department of Health published the results of a review of alternative therapies that sought to determine if any were suitable for being covered by health insurance; Yoga was one of 17 practices evaluated for which no clear evidence of effectiveness was found, with the caveat that “Reviewers were limited in drawing definite conclusions, not only due to a lack of studies for some clinical conditions, but also due to the lack of information reported in the reviews and potentially in the primary studies.”
While the practice of yoga continues to rise in contemporary American culture, sufficient and adequate knowledge of the practice’s origins does not. According to Andrea R. Jain, Yoga is being marketed as a supplement to a cardio routine with health benefits, but in Hinduism it is more than exercise and incorporates meditation with spiritual benefits.
Potential benefits for adults
While much of the medical community regards the results of yoga research as significant, others point to many flaws which undermine results. Much of the research on yoga has taken the form of preliminary studies or clinical trials of low methodological quality, including small sample sizes, inadequate blinding, lack of randomization, and high risk of bias. Long-term yoga users in the United States have reported musculoskeletal and mental health improvements, as well as reduced symptoms of asthma in asthmatics. There is evidence to suggest that regular yoga practice increases brain GABA levels, and yoga has been shown to improve mood and anxiety more than some other metabolically-matched exercises, such as walking. The three main focuses of Hatha yoga make it beneficial to those suffering from heart disease. Overall, studies of the effects of yoga on heart disease suggest that yoga may reduce high blood-pressure, improve symptoms of heart failure, enhance cardiac rehabilitation, and lower cardiovascular risk factors. For chronic low back pain, specialist Yoga for Healthy Lower Backs has been found 30% more beneficial than usual care alone in a UK clinical trial. Other smaller studies support this finding. The Yoga for Healthy Lower Backs programme is the dominant treatment for society due to 8.5 fewer days off work each year. A research group from Boston University School of Medicine also tested yoga’s effects on lower-back pain. Over twelve weeks, one group of volunteers practiced yoga while the control group continued with standard treatment for back pain. The reported pain for yoga participants decreased by one third, while the standard treatment group had only a five percent drop. Yoga participants also had a drop of 80% in the use of pain medication.
There has been an emergence of studies investigating yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer patients. Yoga is used for treatment of cancer patients to decrease depression, insomnia, pain, and fatigue and to increase anxiety control. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction programs include yoga as a mind-body technique to reduce stress. A study found that after seven weeks the group treated with yoga reported significantly less mood disturbance and reduced stress compared to the control group. Another study found that MBSR had showed positive effects on sleep anxiety, quality of life, and spiritual growth in cancer patients.
Yoga has also been studied as a treatment for schizophrenia. Some encouraging, but inconclusive, evidence suggests that yoga as a complementary treatment may help alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia and improve health-related quality of life.
Yoga has been shown in a study to have some cognitive functioning acute benefit.
A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found no evidence that yoga was effective for metabolic syndrome.
A small percentage of yoga practitioners each year suffer physical injuries analogous to sports injuries; Yoga has been criticized for being potentially dangerous and being a cause for a range of serious medical conditions including thoracic outlet syndrome, degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine, spinal stenosis, retinal tears, damage to the common fibular nerve, “Yoga foot drop,” etc. An exposé of these problems by William Broad published in January, 2012 in The New York Times Magazine resulted in controversy within the international yoga community. Broad, a science writer, yoga practitioner, and author of The Science of Yoga: The Risks and the Rewards, had suffered a back injury while performing a yoga posture. Torn muscles, knee injuries, and headaches are common ailments which may result from yoga practice.
An extensive survey of yoga practitioners in Australia showed that about 20% had suffered some physical injury while practicing yoga. In the previous 12 months 4.6% of the respondents had suffered an injury producing prolonged pain or requiring medical treatment. Headstands, shoulder stands, lotus and half lotus, forward bends, backward bends, and handstands produced the greatest number of injuries.
Some yoga practitioners do not recommend certain yoga exercises for women during menstruation, for pregnant women, or for nursing mothers. However, meditation, breathing exercises, and certain postures which are safe and beneficial for women in these categories are encouraged.
Among the main reasons that experts cite for causing negative effects from yoga are beginners’ competitiveness and instructors’ lack of qualification. As the demand for yoga classes grows, many people get certified to become yoga instructors, often with relatively little training. Not every newly certified instructor can evaluate the condition of every new trainee in their class and recommend refraining from doing certain poses or using appropriate props to avoid injuries. In turn, a beginning yoga student can overestimate the abilities of their body and strive to do advanced poses before their body is flexible or strong enough to perform them.
Acetabular labral tears, damage to the structure joining the femur and the hip, have been reported to have resulted from yoga practice.
It is claimed that yoga can be an excellent training for children and adolescents, both as a form of physical exercise and for breathing, focus, mindfulness, and stress relief: many school districts have considered incorporating yoga into their P.E. programs. The Encinitas, California school district gained a San Diego Superior Court Judge’s approval to use yoga in P.E., holding against the parents who claimed the practice was intrinsically religious and hence should not be part of a state funded program.
Over time, an extended yoga physiology developed, especially within the tantric tradition and hatha yoga. It pictures humans as composed of three bodies or five sheaths which cover the atman. The three bodies are described within the Mandukya Upanishad, which adds a fourth state, turiya, while the five sheaths are described in the Taittiriya Upanishad. They are often integrated:
# Sthula sarira, the Gross body, comprising the Annamaya Kosha
Within the subtle body energy flows through the nadis or channels, and is concentrated within the chakras.
Yoga and specialized meditation
Zen, the name of which derives from the Sanskrit “dhyāna” via the Chinese “ch’an” is a form of Mahayana Buddhism. The Mahayana school of Buddhism is noted for its proximity with yoga. In the west, Zen is often set alongside yoga; the two schools of meditation display obvious family resemblances. This segregation deserves attention because yogic practices integrally exist within the Zen Buddhist school. Certain essential elements of yoga are important both for Buddhism in general and for Zen in particular. The last six are described as “yoga yanas”: “Kriya yoga”, “Upa yoga,” “Yoga yana,” “Mahā yoga,” “Anu yoga” and the ultimate practice, “Ati yoga.” The Sarma traditions also include Kriya, Upa, and Yoga, with the Anuttara yoga class substituting for Mahayoga and Atiyoga.
Other tantra yoga practices include a system of 108 bodily postures practiced with breath and heart rhythm. The Nyingma tradition also practices Yantra yoga, a discipline that includes breath work, meditative contemplation and precise dynamic movements to centre the practitioner. The body postures of Tibetan ancient yogis are depicted on the walls of the Dalai Lama’s summer temple of Lukhang. A semi-popular account of Tibetan yoga by Chang refers to caṇḍalī, the generation of heat in one’s own body, as being “the very foundation of the whole of Tibetan yoga.” Chang also claims that Tibetan yoga involves reconciliation of apparent polarities, such as prana and mind, relating this to theoretical implications of tantrism.
Reception in other religions
Some Christians integrate yoga and other aspects of Eastern spirituality with prayer and meditation. This has been attributed to a desire to experience God in a more complete way. In 2013, Monsignor Raffaello Martinelli, servicing Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, having worked for over 23 years with Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, said that for his Meditation, a Christian can learn from other religious traditions, quoting Aspects of Christian meditation: “Just as “the Catholic Church rejects nothing of what is true and holy in these religions,” neither should these ways be rejected out of hand simply because they are not Christian. On the contrary, one can take from them what is useful so long as the Christian conception of prayer, its logic and requirements are never obscured. It is within the context of all of this that these bits and pieces should be taken up and expressed anew.” Previously, the Roman Catholic Church, and some other Christian organizations have expressed concerns and disapproval with respect to some eastern and New Age practices that include yoga and meditation.
In 1989 and 2003, the Vatican issued two documents: Aspects of Christian meditation and “A Christian reflection on the New Age,” that were mostly critical of eastern and New Age practices. The 2003 document was published as a 90-page handbook detailing the Vatican’s position. The Vatican warned that concentration on the physical aspects of meditation “can degenerate into a cult of the body” and that equating bodily states with mysticism “could also lead to psychic disturbance and, at times, to moral deviations.” Such has been compared to the early days of Christianity, when the church opposed the gnostics’ belief that salvation came not through faith but through a mystical inner knowledge. but maintains the idea that “there must be some fit between the nature of prayer and Christian beliefs about ultimate reality.”
Another view holds that Christian meditation can lead to religious pluralism. This is held by an interdenominational association of Christians that practice it. “The ritual simultaneously operates as an anchor that maintains, enhances, and promotes denominational activity and a sail that allows institutional boundaries to be crossed.”
In early 11th century, the Persian scholar Al Biruni visited India, lived with Hindus for 16 years, and with their help translated several significant Sanskrit works into Arabic and Persian languages. One of these was Patanjali’s Yogasutras. Al Biruni’s translation preserved many of the core themes of Patañjali ‘s Yoga philosophy, but certain sutras and analytical commentaries were restated making it more consistent with Islamic monotheistic theology. Al Biruni’s version of Yoga Sutras reached Persia and Arabian peninsula by about 1050 AD. Later, in the 16th century, the hath yoga text Amritakunda was translated into Arabic and then Persian. Yoga was, however, not accepted by mainstream Sunni and Shia Islam. Minority Islamic sects such as the mystic Sufi movement, particularly in South Asia, adopted Indian yoga practises, including postures and breath control. Muhammad Ghawth, a Shattari Sufi and one of the translators of yoga text in 16th century, drew controversy for his interest in yoga and was persecuted for his Sufi beliefs.
Malaysia’s top Islamic body in 2008 passed a fatwa, prohibiting Muslims from practicing yoga, saying it had elements of Hinduism and that its practice was blasphemy, therefore haraam. Some Muslims in Malaysia who had been practicing yoga for years, criticized the decision as “insulting.” Sisters in Islam, a women’s rights group in Malaysia, also expressed disappointment and said yoga was just a form of exercise. This fatwa is legally enforceable. However, Malaysia’s prime minister clarified that yoga as physical exercise is permissible, but the chanting of religious mantras is prohibited.
In 2009, the Council of Ulemas, an Islamic body in Indonesia, passed a fatwa banning yoga on the grounds that it contains Hindu elements. These fatwas have, in turn, been criticized by Darul Uloom Deoband, a Deobandi Islamic seminary in India. Similar fatwas banning yoga, for its link to Hinduism, were issued by the Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa in Egypt in 2004, and by Islamic clerics in Singapore earlier.
In Iran, as of May 2014, according to its Yoga Association, there were approximately 200 yoga centres in the country, a quarter of them in the capital Tehran, where groups can often be seen practising in parks. This has been met by opposition among conservatives. In May 2009, Turkey’s head of the Directorate of Religious Affairs, Ali Bardakoğlu, discounted personal development techniques such as reiki and yoga as commercial ventures that could lead to extremism. His comments were made in the context of reiki and yoga possibly being a form of proselytization at the expense of Islam.
International Day of Yoga
On 11 December 2014, The 193-member United Nations General Assembly approved by consensus, a resolution establishing 21 June as ‘International Day of Yoga’.
The declaration of this day came after the call for the adoption of 21 June as International Day of Yoga by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his address to UN General Assembly on 27 September 2014. In suggesting 21 June, which is one of the two solstices, as the International Day of Yoga, Narendra Modi had said that the date is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and has special significance in many parts of the world.
The first International Day of Yoga was observed world over on 21 June 2015. About 35000 people, including Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and a large number of dignitaries, performed 21 Yoga asanas for 35 minutes at Rajpath in New Delhi. The day devoted to Yoga was observed by millions across the world.
The event at Rajpath established two Guinness records – largest Yoga Class with 35985 people and the record for the most nationalities participating in it- eighty four.
List of asanas
List of yoga schools
Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of “The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.”
Worthington, Vivian . . Routledge. ISBN 0-7100-9258-X.
Wynne, Alexander Routledge, 2007, ISBN 1-134-09741-7.
Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell.
Zydenbos, Robert. Jainism Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p. 66
Mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one’s attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment, which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training. The term “mindfulness” is a translation of the Pali-term sati, which is a significant element of some Buddhist traditions. The recent popularity of mindfulness in the West is generally considered to have been initiated by Jon Kabat-Zinn.
Large population-based research studies have indicated that the practice of mindfulness is strongly correlated with well-being and perceived health. Studies have also shown that rumination and worry contribute to mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety, and that mindfulness-based interventions are effective in the reduction of both rumination and worry.
Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people who are experiencing a variety of psychological conditions. reducing stress, anxiety, Recent studies demonstrate that mindfulness meditation significantly attenuates pain through multiple, unique mechanisms. It has gained worldwide popularity as a distinctive method to handle emotions.
Clinical studies have documented both physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children. Programs based on MBSR and similar models have been widely adapted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.
Mindfulness meditation is practiced sitting with eyes closed, cross-legged on a cushion, or on a chair, with the back straight. Attention is put on the movement of the abdomen when breathing in and out, or on the awareness of the breath as it goes in and out the nostrils. If one becomes distracted from the breath, one passively notices one’s mind has wandered, but in an accepting, non-judgmental way and one returns to focusing on breathing. A famous exercise, introduced by Kabat-Zinn in his MBSR-program, is the mindful tasting of a raisin, in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully.
Meditators start with short periods of 10 minutes or so of meditation practice per day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing. Research on the neural perspective of how mindfulness meditation works suggests that it exerts its effects in components of attention regulation, body awareness and emotional regulation. When considering aspects such as sense of responsibility, authenticity, compassion, self-acceptance and character, studies have shown that mindfulness meditation contributes to a more coherent and healthy sense of self and identity. Neuroimaging techniques suggest that mindfulness practices such as mindfulness meditation are associated with “changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, temporo-parietal junction, fronto-limbic network and default mode network structures.” Further, mindfulness-induced emotional and behavioral changes have been found to be related to functional and structural changes in the brain.
Translations and definitions
Mindfulness meditation can be defined in many ways and can be used for a variety of different therapies. When defining mindfulness meditation, it is useful to draw upon Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology.
Sati and smṛti
The Buddhist term translated into English as “mindfulness” originates in the Pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. According to Robert Sharf, the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion. Smṛti originally meant “to remember,” “to recollect,” “to bear in mind,” as in the Vedic tradition of remembering the sacred texts. The term sati also means “to remember.” In the Satipaṭṭhāna-sutta the term sati means to remember the dharmas, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen. Sharf refers to the Milindapañha, which explained that the arisement of sati calls to mind the wholesome dhammas such as the four establishings of mindfulness, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven awakening-factors, the noble eight-factored path, and the attainment of insight. According to Rupert Gethin,
Sharf further notes that this has little to do with “bare attention,” the popular contemporary interpretation of sati, “since it entails, among other things, the proper discrimination of the moral valence of phenomena as they arise.”
The Pali-language scholar Thomas William Rhys Davids first translated sati in 1881 as English mindfulness in sammā-sati “Right Mindfulness; the active, watchful mind”. Noting that Daniel John Gogerly initially rendered sammā-sati as “Correct meditation“, Davids explained,
John D. Dunne asserts that the translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish “retention” as the preferred alternative.
Bhikkhu Bodhi also points to the meaning of “sati” as “memory”. The terms sati/smriti have also been translated as:
Presence Dav Panesar
A.M. Haynes and G. Feldman have highlighted that mindfulness can be seen as a strategy that stands in contrast to a strategy of avoidance of emotion on the one hand and to the strategy of emotional overengagement on the other hand. Mindfulness can also be viewed as a means to develop wisdom. A distinction can also be made between the state of mindfulness and the trait of mindfulness.
According to David S. Black, whereas “mindfulness” originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and “a capacity attainable only by certain people”, scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness. Black mentions three possible domains:
# A trait, a dispositional characteristic, a person’s tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states;
# A state, an outcome, being in a state of present-moment awareness;
# A practice .
According to Brown, mindfulness is
Seven mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs:
Mindful Attention Awareness Scale
Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory
Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills
Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale
Revised Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale
Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale
According to Bishop et al., mindfulness is
The Toronto Mindfulness Scale measures mindfulness as a state-like phenomenon, that is evoked and maintained by regular practice.
Mindfulness as a practice is described as:
“Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices
“Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally” proposed a two-component model of mindfulness:
In this two-component model, self-regulated attention “involves bringing awareness to current experience – observing and attending to the changing fields of “objects”, from moment to moment – by regulating the focus of attention”. Orientation to experience involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state, but rather to just notice each object that arises in the stream of consciousness.
According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, mindfulness may also refer to “a state of being aware”. Synonyms for this “state of being aware” are wakefulness, attention, alertness, prudence, It leads to insight into the true nature of reality, namely the three marks of existence, the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self. With this insight, the practitioner becomes a socalled Sotāpanna, a “stream-enterer”, the first stage on the path to liberation. Vipassana is practiced in tandem with samatha, and also plays a central role in other Buddhist traditions such as Tibetan Buddhism.
According to Paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way in early Buddhism to liberation, “constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths.” According to Vetter, dhyana may have been the original core practice of the Buddha, which aided the maintenance of mindfulness.
According to Rhys Davids, the doctrine of mindfulness is “perhaps the most important” after the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path. Rhys Davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions.
Kabat-Zinn himself refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with the other eminent Transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman:
The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were themselves influenced by Transcendentalism and other 19th-century manifestations of Western esotericism. Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church, which in India collaborated with Ram Mohan Roy and his Brahmo Samaj. He found that Unitarianism came closest to true Christianity, and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians. This influence worked through on Vivekananda, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west. Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention, which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the Buddhist sutras through English translations from the Pali Text Society. It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the Theosophical Society. Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings of D.T. Suzuki, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes.
Jon Kabat-Zinn and MBSR
In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn founded the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program at the University of Massachusetts to treat the chronically ill. This program sparked the application of mindfulness ideas and practices in Medicine for the treatment of a variety of conditions in both healthy and unhealthy people. MBSR and similar programs are now widely applied in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans centers, and other environments.
Mindfulness practices were inspired mainly by teachings from the Eastern World, particularly from Buddhist traditions. One of MBSR’s techniques – the “body scan” – was derived from a meditation practice of the Burmese U Ba Khin tradition, as taught by S. N. Goenka in his Vipassana retreats, which he began in 1976. It has since been widely adapted in secular settings, independent of religious or cultural contexts.
Popularization, “mindfulness movement”
Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology. and can be practiced outside a formal setting. The terminology used by scholars of religion, scientists, journalists, and popular media writers to describe this movement of mindfulness “popularization,” and the many new contexts of mindfulness practice which have cropped up, has regularly evolved over the past 20 years, with some criticisms arising.
Sati is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. “Correct” or “right” mindfulness is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path.
Mindfulness is an antidote to delusion and is considered as a ‘power’ which contributes to the attainment of nirvana. This faculty becomes a power in particular when it is coupled with clear comprehension of whatever is taking place. Nirvana is a state of being in which greed, hatred and delusion have been overcome and abandoned, and are absent from the mind.
Anapanasati, satipaṭṭhāna, and vipassana
Anapanasati is mindfulness of breathing. “Sati” means mindfulness; “ānāpāna” refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the movements of the breath in the body. The Anapanasati Sutta gives an exposition on this practice.
Satipaṭṭhāna is the establishment of mindfulness in one’s day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one’s body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom .
Vipassanā is insight into the true nature of reality, According to the contemporary Theravada orthodoxy, samatha is used as a preparation for vipassanā, pacifying the mind and strengthening the concentration in order to allow the work of insight, which leads to liberation.
Vipassanā-meditation has gained popularity in the west through the modern Buddhist vipassana movement, modeled after Theravāda Buddhism meditation practices, which employs vipassanā and ānāpāna meditation as its primary techniques and places emphasis on the teachings of the Sutta.
Samprajaña, apramāda and atappa
In Buddhist practice, “mindfulness” also includes samprajaña, meaning “clear comprehension” and apramāda meaning “vigilance”. All three terms are sometimes translated as “mindfulness”, but they all have specific shades of meaning.
In a publicly available correspondence between Bhikkhu Bodhi and B. Alan Wallace, Bodhi has described Ven. Nyanaponika Thera’s views on “right mindfulness” and sampajañña as follows:
Georges Dreyfus has expressed unease with the definition of mindfulness as “bare attention” or “nonelaborative, nonjudgmental, present-centered awareness”, stressing that mindfulness in Buddhist context means also “remembering”, which indicates that the function of mindfulness also includes the retention of information.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction
Mindfulness-based stress reduction is a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, which uses a combination of mindfulness meditation, body awareness, and yoga to help people become more mindful. In recent years, meditation has been the subject of controlled clinical research. This suggests it may have beneficial effects, including stress reduction, relaxation, and improvements to quality of life, but that it does not help prevent or cure disease. While MBSR has its roots in spiritual teachings, the program itself is secular.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is a psychological therapy designed to aid in preventing the relapse of depression, specifically in individuals with Major depressive disorder . It uses traditional cognitive behavioral therapy methods and adds in newer psychological strategies such as mindfulness and mindfulness meditation. Cognitive methods can include educating the participant about depression. Mindfulness and mindfulness meditation, focus on becoming aware of all incoming thoughts and feelings and accepting them, but not attaching or reacting to them.
Like CBT, MBCT functions on the theory that when individuals who have historically had depression become distressed, they return to automatic cognitive processes that can trigger a depressive episode. The goal of MBCT is to interrupt these automatic processes and teach the participants to focus less on reacting to incoming stimuli, and instead accepting and observing them without judgment.
Acceptance and commitment therapy
Acceptance and commitment therapy or is a form of clinical behavior analysis used in psychotherapy. It is an empirically based psychological intervention that uses acceptance and mindfulness strategies mixed in different ways with commitment and behavior-change strategies, to increase psychological flexibility. The approach was originally called comprehensive distancing. It was developed in the late 1980s by Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson, and Kirk Strosahl.
Dialectical behavior therapy
Mindfulness is a “core” exercise used in dialectical behavior therapy, a psychosocial treatment Marsha M. Linehan developed for treating people with borderline personality disorder. DBT is dialectic, explains Linehan, in the sense of “the reconciliation of opposites in a continual process of synthesis.” As a practitioner of Buddhist meditation techniques, Linehan says:
Mode deactivation therapy
Mode deactivation therapy is a treatment methodology that is derived from the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy and incorporates elements of Acceptance and commitment therapy, Dialectical behavior therapy, and mindfulness techniques. Mindfulness techniques such as simple breathing exercises are applied to assist the client in awareness and non-judgmental acceptance of unpleasant and distressing thoughts and feelings as they occur in the present moment. Mode Deactivation Therapy was developed and is established as an effective treatment for adolescents with problem behaviors and complex trauma-related psychological problems, according to recent publications by Jack A. Apsche and Joan Swart.
Since 2006, research supports promising mindfulness-based therapies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions, notably chronic pain, stress, anxiety and depression, substance abuse, and recurrent suicidal behavior . Bell gives a brief overview of mindful approaches to therapy, particularly family therapy, starting with a discussion of mysticism and emphasizing the value of a mindful therapist.
The Japanese psychiatrist Shoma Morita, who trained in Zen meditation, developed Morita therapy upon principles of mindfulness and non-attachment. Since the beginnings of Gestalt therapy in the early 1940s, mindfulness, referred to as “awareness”, has been an essential part of its theory and practice.
The British doctor Clive Sherlock developed Adaptation Practice in 1977. Adaptation Practice is a structured programme of self-discipline.
Hakomi therapy, under development by Ron Kurtz and others, is a somatic psychology based upon Asian philosophical precepts of mindfulness and nonviolence.
Internal Family Systems Model, developed by Richard C. Schwartz, emphasizes the importance of both therapist and client engaging in therapy from the Self, which is the IFS term for one’s “spiritual center”. The Self is curious about whatever arises in one’s present experience and open and accepting toward all manifestations.
Mindfulness relaxation uses breathing methods, guided imagery, and other practices to relax the body and mind and help reduce stress.
Mindfulness has gained increasing empirical attention ever since 1970. According to a 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, evidence supports the use of mindfulness programs to alleviate symptoms of a variety of mental and physical disorders. and may also prevent or delay the onset of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.
Mindfulness proved to be effective also in enhancing people’s capacity to self-regulate.
Mindfulness is gaining a growing popularity as a practice in daily life, apart from buddhist insight meditation and its application in clinical psychology.
The mindfulness movement has entered the mainstream, mainly through the work of Jon Kabat-Zinn
Mindfulness has come to be seen as a mode of being,
MindUP, a classroom-based program spearheaded by Goldie Hawn’s Hawn Foundation, teaches students to self-regulate behavior and mindfully engage in focused concentration required for academic success. For the last decade, MindUP has trained teachers in over 1,000 schools in cities from Arizona to Washington.
The Holistic Life Foundation, a non-profit organization that created an in-school mindfulness program called Mindful Moment, is currently serving almost 350 students daily at Robert W. Coleman Elementary School and approximately 1300 students at Patterson Park High School in Baltimore, Maryland. At Patterson High School, the Mindful Moment program engages the school’s faculty along with the students during a 15-minute mindfulness practice at the beginning and end of each school day.
Mindful Life Project, a non-profit 5013 based out of Richmond, California, teaches mindfulness to elementary school students in underserved schools in the South Richmond school district. Utilizing curriculum, “Rise-Up” is a regular school day intervention program serving 430 students weekly, while “Mindful Community” is currently implemented at six South Richmond partner schools. These in-school mindfulness programs have been endorsed by Richmond Mayor Gayle McLaughlin, who has recommended additional funding to expand the program in order to serve all Richmond youth.
A study enrolled college students in a course about mindfulness that included guided mindfulness meditation as part of the curriculum. After the semester, pre- and post-levels for different aspects of mental health were compared and students were found to have more non-judgmental stances towards their thoughts and feelings. This is believed to result better stress coping skills, improved academic performance and quality of life. Furthermore, scores continued to improve for the weeks following the end of the course, demonstrating the long-lasting effects of mindfulness meditation.
Mindfulness training appears to be getting popular in the business world, and many large corporations have been incorporating practicing mindfulness into their culture. For example, companies such as Google, Apple, Procter & Gamble, General Mills, Mayo Clinic, and the U.S. Army offer mindfulness coaching, meditation breaks and other resources to their employees to improve workplace functioning. Mindfulness has been found to result in better employee well-being, lower levels of frustration, lower absenteeism and burnout as well as an improved overall work environment.
Legal and law enforcement organizations are also showing interest in mindfulness:
Harvard Law School’s Program on Negotiation hosted a workshop on “Mindfulness in the Law & Alternative Dispute Resolution.”
Many law firms offer mindfulness classes. Additional studies indicate that mindfulness interventions can result in significant reductions in anger, reductions in substance use, increased relaxation capacity, self-regulation and optimism.
Many government organizations offer mindfulness training. Coping Strategies is an example of a program utilized by United States Armed Forces personnel. The British Parliament organized a mindfulness-session for its members in 2014, led by Ruby Wax.
Various scholars have criticized how mindfulness has been defined or represented in recent western psychology publications.
These modern understandings depart significantly from the accounts of mindfulness in early Buddhist texts and authoritative commentaries in the Theravada and Indian Mahayana traditions. Adam Valerio has introduced the idea that conflict between academic disciplines over how mindfulness is defined, understood, and popularly presented may be indicative of a personal, institutional, or paradigmatic battle for ownership over mindfulness, one where academics, researchers, and other writers are invested as individuals in much the same way as religious communities. According to Safran, the popularity of mindfulness is the result of a marketing strategy:
“McMindfulness is the marketing of a constructed dream; an idealized lifestyle; an identity makeover.”
According to Purser and Loy, mindfulness is not being used as a means to awaken to insight in the “unwholesome roots of greed, ill will and delusion,”
In media reports, people have attributed unexpected effects of increasing fear and anxiety panic or “meltdowns” after practicing, which could expose bipolar vulnerability or repressed PTSD symptoms. However, according to one editorial, “there is a paucity of robust research that specifically assesses whether Mindfulness Based Interventions can induce non-salutatory health outcomes”.
Choiceless awareness is posited in philosophy, psychology, and spirituality to be the state of unpremeditated, complete awareness of the present without preference, effort, or compulsion. The term was popularized in the mid-20th century by Jiddu Krishnamurti, in whose philosophy it signifies a main theme. Similar or related concepts had been previously developed in several religious or spiritual traditions; the term or others like it has also been used to describe traditional and contemporary secular and religious meditation practices. However, Krishnamurti’s approach to Choiceless Awareness was unique, and differs from both pre-existing and later-developed notions.
Nonviolent communication is a communication process developed by Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s. NVC often functions as a conflict resolution process. It focuses on three aspects of communication: self-empathy, empathy, and honest self-expression .
NVC is based on the idea that all human beings have the capacity for compassion and only resort to violence or behavior that harms others when they don’t recognize more effective strategies for meeting needs. Habits of thinking and speaking that lead to the use of violence are learned through culture. NVC theory supposes all human behavior stems from attempts to meet universal human needs and that these needs are never in conflict. Rather, conflict arises when strategies for meeting needs clash. NVC proposes that if people can identify their needs, the needs of others, and the feelings that surround these needs, harmony can be achieved.
While NVC is ostensibly taught as a process of communication designed to improve compassionate connection to others, it has also been interpreted as a spiritual practice, a set of values, a parenting technique, an educational method and a worldview.
Buddhism and psychology
Taqwa and dhikr, related Islamic concepts
Thich Nhat Hanh
Mindfulness and technology
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Jewellery or jewelry consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from Nassarius shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery. The basic forms of jewellery vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewellery listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia.
Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures, but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other periods in European culture.
The word jewellery itself is derived from the word jewel, which was anglicized from the Old French “jouel”, and beyond that, to the Latin word “jocale”, meaning plaything. In British English, Indian English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, and South African English it is spelled jewellery, while the spelling is jewelry in American English.
as an artistic display
as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning – such as love, mourning, or even luck
Most cultures at some point have had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads.
Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.
Jewellery can also symbolise group membership or status .
Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols, stones, plants, animals, body parts, or glyphs .
Materials and methods
In creating jewellery, gemstones, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery. Bronze, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, platinum, palladium, titanium, or silver. Most contemporary gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity, and is typically found up to 18K . Higher purity levels are less common with alloys at 22 K, and 24 K being considered too soft for jewellery use in America and Europe. These high purity alloys, however, are widely used across Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Platinum alloys range from 900 to 950 . The silver used in jewellery is usually sterling silver, or 92.5% fine silver. In costume jewellery, stainless steel findings are sometimes used.
Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel; wood, often carved or turned; shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory; natural clay; polymer clay; Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of a natural feel. However, any inclusion of lead or lead solder will give an English Assay office the right to destroy the piece, however it is very rare for the assay office to do so.
Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the “woven” style of beaded jewellery. Another use of seed beads is an embroidery technique where seed beads are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures.
Silversmiths, goldsmiths, and lapidaries methods include forging, casting, soldering or welding, cutting, carving and “cold-joining” .
Diamonds were first mined in India. Pliny may have mentioned them, although there is some debate as to the exact nature of the stone he referred to as Adamas; In 2005, Australia, Botswana, Russia and Canada ranked among the primary sources of gemstone diamond production. There are negative consequences of the diamond trade in certain areas. Diamonds mined during the recent civil wars in Angola, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, and other nations have been labelled as blood diamonds when they are mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency.
The British crown jewels contain the Cullinan Diamond, part of the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found, at 3,106.75 carats .
Now popular in engagement rings, this usage dates back to the marriage of Maximilian I to Mary of Burgundy in 1477.
Many precious and semiprecious stones are used for jewellery. Among them are:
Amber: Amber, an ancient organic gemstone, is composed of tree resin that has hardened over time. The stone must be at least one million years old to be classified as amber, and some amber can be up to 120 million years old.
Amethyst: Amethyst has historically been the most prized gemstone in the quartz family. It is treasured for its purple hue, which can range in tone from light to dark.
Emerald: Emeralds are one of the three main precious gemstones and are known for their fine green to bluish green colour. They have been treasured throughout history, and some historians report that the Egyptians mined emerald as early as 3500 BC.
Jade: Jade is most commonly associated with the colour green but can come in a number of other colours as well. Jade is closely linked to Asian culture, history, and tradition, and is sometimes referred to as the stone of heaven.
Jasper: Jasper is a gemstone of the chalcedony family that comes in a variety of colours. Often, jasper will feature unique and interesting patterns within the coloured stone. Picture jasper is a type of jasper known for the colours and swirls in the stone’s pattern.
Quartz: Quartz refers to a family of crystalline gemstones of various colours and sizes. Among the well-known types of quartz are rose quartz, and smoky quartz . A number of other gemstones, such as Amethyst and Citrine, are also part of the quartz family. Rutilated quartz is a popular type of quartz containing needle-like inclusions.
Ruby: Rubies are known for their intense red colour and are among the most highly valued precious gemstones. Rubies have been treasured for millennia. In Sanskrit, the word for ruby is ratnaraj, meaning king of precious stones.
Sapphire: The most popular form of sapphire is blue sapphire, which is known for its medium to deep blue colour and strong saturation. Fancy sapphires of various colours are also available. In the United States, blue sapphire tends to be the most popular and most affordable of the three major precious gemstones .
Turquoise: Turquoise is found in only a few places on earth, and the world’s largest turquoise producing region is the southwest United States. Turquoise is prized for its attractive colour, most often an intense medium blue or a greenish blue, and its ancient heritage. Turquoise is used in a great variety of jewellery styles. It is perhaps most closely associated with southwest and Native American jewellery, but it is also used in many sleek, modern styles. Some turquoise contains a matrix of dark brown markings, which provides an interesting contrast to the gemstone’s bright blue colour.
Some gemstones are classified as organic, meaning that they are produced by living organisms. Others are inorganic, meaning that they are generally composed of and arise from minerals.
Some gems, for example, amethyst, have become less valued as methods of extracting and importing them have progressed. Some man-made gems can serve in place of natural gems, such as cubic zirconia, which can be used in place of diamond.
For platinum, gold, and silver jewellery, there are many techniques to create finishes. The most common are high-polish, satin/matte, brushed, and hammered. High-polished jewellery is the most common and gives the metal a highly reflective, shiny look. Satin, or matte finish reduces the shine and reflection of the jewellery, and this is commonly used to accentuate gemstones such as diamonds. Brushed finishes give the jewellery a textured look and are created by brushing a material against the metal, leaving “brush strokes.” Hammered finishes are typically created by using a rounded steel hammer and hammering the jewellery to give it a wavy texture.
Some jewellery is plated to give it a shiny, reflective look or to achieve a desired colour. Sterling silver jewellery may be plated with a thin layer of 0.999 fine silver or may be plated with rhodium or gold. Base metal costume jewellery may also be plated with silver, gold, or rhodium for a more attractive finish.
Impact on society
Jewellery has been used to denote status. In ancient Rome, only certain ranks could wear rings; later, sumptuary laws dictated who could wear what type of jewellery. This was also based on rank of the citizens of that time. Cultural dictates have also played a significant role. For example, the wearing of earrings by Western men was considered effeminate in the 19th century and early 20th century. More recently, the display of body jewellery, such as piercings, has become a mark of acceptance or seen as a badge of courage within some groups but is completely rejected in others. Likewise, hip hop culture has popularised the slang term bling-bling, which refers to ostentatious display of jewellery by men or women.
Conversely, the jewellery industry in the early 20th century launched a campaign to popularise wedding rings for men, which caught on, as well as engagement rings for men, which did not, going so far as to create a false history and claim that the practice had medieval roots. By the mid-1940s, 85% of weddings in the U.S. featured a double-ring ceremony, up from 15% in the 1920s. Religion has also played a role in societies influence. Islam, for instance, considers the wearing of gold by men as a social taboo, and many religions have edicts against excessive display. In Christianity, the New Testament gives injunctions against the wearing of gold, in the writings of the apostles Paul and Peter. In Revelation 17, “the great whore” or false religious system, is depicted as being “decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand.” For Muslims it is considered haraam for a man to wear gold.
The history of jewellery is long and goes back many years, with many different uses among different cultures. It has endured for thousands of years and has provided various insights into how ancient cultures worked.
The first signs of jewellery came from the people in Africa. Perforated beads suggesting shell jewellery made from sea snail shells have been found dating to 75,000 years ago at Blombos Cave. In Kenya, at Enkapune Ya Muto, beads made from perforated ostrich egg shells have been dated to more than 40,000 years ago. In Russia, a stone bracelet and marble ring are attributed to a similar age.
Later, the European early modern humans had crude necklaces and bracelets of bone, teeth, berries, and stone hung on pieces of string or animal sinew, or pieces of carved bone used to secure clothing together. In some cases, jewellery had shell or mother-of-pearl pieces.
A decorated engraved pendant dating to around 11,000 BC, and thought to be the oldest Mesolithic art in Britain, was found at the site of Star Carr in North Yorkshire in 2015. In southern Russia, carved bracelets made of mammoth tusk have been found. The Venus of Hohle Fels features a perforation at the top, showing that it was intended to be worn as a pendant.
Around seven-thousand years ago, the first sign of copper jewellery was seen.
The first signs of established jewellery making in Ancient Egypt was around 3,000–5,000 years ago. The Egyptians preferred the luxury, rarity, and workability of gold over other metals. In Predynastic Egypt jewellery soon began to symbolise power and religious power in the community. Although it was worn by wealthy Egyptians in life, it was also worn by them in death, with jewellery commonly placed among grave goods.
In conjunction with gold jewellery, Egyptians used coloured glass, along with semi-precious gems. The colour of the jewellery had significance. Green, for example, symbolised fertility. Lapis lazuli and silver had to be imported from beyond the country’s borders.
Egyptian designs were most common in Phoenician jewellery. Also, ancient Turkish designs found in Persian jewellery suggest that trade between the Middle East and Europe was not uncommon. Women wore elaborate gold and silver pieces that were used in ceremonies.
Jewellery in Mesopotamia tended to be manufactured from thin metal leaf and was set with large numbers of brightly coloured stones . Favoured shapes included leaves, spirals, cones, and bunches of grapes. Jewellers created works both for human use and for adorning statues and idols. They employed a wide variety of sophisticated metalworking techniques, such as cloisonné, engraving, fine granulation, and filigree.
Extensive and meticulously maintained records pertaining to the trade and manufacture of jewellery have also been unearthed throughout Mesopotamian archaeological sites. One record in the Mari royal archives, for example, gives the composition of various items of jewellery:
The Greeks started using gold and gems in jewellery in 1600 BC, although beads shaped as shells and animals were produced widely in earlier times. Around 1500 BC, the main techniques of working gold in Greece included casting, twisting bars, and making wire. Many of these sophisticated techniques were popular in the Mycenaean period, but unfortunately this skill was lost at the end of the Bronze Age. The forms and shapes of jewellery in ancient Greece such as the armring, brooch and pins, have varied widely since the Bronze Age as well. Other forms of jewellery include wreaths, earrings, necklace and bracelets. A good example of the high quality that gold working techniques could achieve in Greece is the ‘Gold Olive Wreath’, which is modeled on the type of wreath given as a prize for winners in athletic competitions like the Olympic Games. Jewellery dating from 600 to 475 BC is not well represented in the archaeological record, but after the Persian wars the quantity of jewellery again became more plentiful. One particularly popular type of design at this time was a bracelet decorated with snake and animal-heads Because these bracelets used considerably more metal, many examples were made from bronze. By 300 BC, the Greeks had mastered making coloured jewellery and using amethysts, pearl, and emeralds. Also, the first signs of cameos appeared, with the Greeks creating them from Indian Sardonyx, a striped brown pink and cream agate stone. Greek jewellery was often simpler than in other cultures, with simple designs and workmanship. However, as time progressed, the designs grew in complexity and different materials were soon used.
Jewellery in Greece was hardly worn and was mostly used for public appearances or on special occasions. It was frequently given as a gift and was predominantly worn by women to show their wealth, social status, and beauty. The jewellery was often supposed to give the wearer protection from the “Evil Eye” or endowed the owner with supernatural powers, while others had a religious symbolism. Older pieces of jewellery that have been found were dedicated to the Gods.
They worked two styles of pieces: cast pieces and pieces hammered out of sheet metal. Fewer pieces of cast jewellery have been recovered. It was made by casting the metal onto two stone or clay moulds. The two halves were then joined together, and wax, followed by molten metal, was placed in the centre. This technique had been practised since the late Bronze Age. The more common form of jewellery was the hammered sheet type. Sheets of metal would be hammered to thickness and then soldered together. The inside of the two sheets would be filled with wax or another liquid to preserve the metal work. Different techniques, such as using a stamp or engraving, were then used to create motifs on the jewellery. Jewels may then be added to hollows or glass poured into special cavities on the surface.”’
The Greeks took much of their designs from outer origins, such as Asia, when Alexander the Great conquered part of it. In earlier designs, other European influences can also be detected. When Roman rule came to Greece, no change in jewellery designs was detected. However, by 27 BC, Greek designs were heavily influenced by the Roman culture. That is not to say that indigenous design did not thrive. Numerous polychrome butterfly pendants on silver foxtail chains, dating from the 1st century, have been found near Olbia, with only one example ever found anywhere else.
Although jewellery work was abundantly diverse in earlier times, especially among the barbarian tribes such as the Celts, when the Romans conquered most of Europe, jewellery was changed as smaller factions developed the Roman designs. The most common artefact of early Rome was the brooch, which was used to secure clothing together. The Romans used a diverse range of materials for their jewellery from their extensive resources across the continent. Although they used gold, they sometimes used bronze or bone, and in earlier times, glass beads & pearl. As early as 2,000 years ago, they imported Sri Lankan sapphires and Indian diamonds and used emeralds and amber in their jewellery. In Roman-ruled England, fossilised wood called jet from Northern England was often carved into pieces of jewellery. The early Italians worked in crude gold and created clasps, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. They also produced larger pendants that could be filled with perfume.
Like the Greeks, often the purpose of Roman jewellery was to ward off the “Evil Eye” given by other people. Although women wore a vast array of jewellery, men often only wore a finger ring. Although they were expected to wear at least one ring, some Roman men wore a ring on every finger, while others wore none. Roman men and women wore rings with an engraved gem on it that was used with wax to seal documents, a practice that continued into medieval times when kings and noblemen used the same method. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the jewellery designs were absorbed by neighbouring countries and tribes. The Celts specialised in continuous patterns and designs, while Merovingian designs are best known for stylised animal figures. They were not the only groups known for high quality work. Note the Visigoth work shown here, and the numerous decorative objects found at the Anglo-Saxon Ship burial at Sutton Hoo Suffolk, England are a particularly well-known example.
The Renaissance and exploration both had significant impacts on the development of jewellery in Europe. By the 17th century, increasing exploration and trade led to increased availability of a wide variety of gemstones as well as exposure to the art of other cultures. Whereas prior to this the working of gold and precious metal had been at the forefront of jewellery, this period saw increasing dominance of gemstones and their settings. An example of this is the Cheapside Hoard, the stock of a jeweller hidden in London during the Commonwealth period and not found again until 1912. It contained Colombian emerald, topaz, amazonite from Brazil, spinel, iolite, and chrysoberyl from Sri Lanka, ruby from India, Afghan lapis lazuli, Persian turquoise, Red Sea peridot, as well as Bohemian and Hungarian opal, garnet, and amethyst. Large stones were frequently set in box-bezels on enamelled rings. Notable among merchants of the period was Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who brought the precursor stone of the Hope Diamond to France in the 1660s.
When Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned as Emperor of the French in 1804, he revived the style and grandeur of jewellery and fashion in France. Under Napoleon’s rule, jewellers introduced parures, suites of matching jewellery, such as a diamond tiara, diamond earrings, diamond rings, a diamond brooch, and a diamond necklace. Both of Napoleon’s wives had beautiful sets such as these and wore them regularly. Another fashion trend resurrected by Napoleon was the cameo. Soon after his cameo decorated crown was seen, cameos were highly sought. The period also saw the early stages of costume jewellery, with fish scale covered glass beads in place of pearls or conch shell cameos instead of stone cameos. New terms were coined to differentiate the arts: jewellers who worked in cheaper materials were called bijoutiers, while jewellers who worked with expensive materials were called joailliers, a practice which continues to this day.
Starting in the late 18th century, Romanticism had a profound impact on the development of western jewellery. Perhaps the most significant influences were the public’s fascination with the treasures being discovered through the birth of modern archaeology and a fascination with Medieval and Renaissance art. Changing social conditions and the onset of the Industrial Revolution also led to growth of a middle class that wanted and could afford jewellery. As a result, the use of industrial processes, cheaper alloys, and stone substitutes led to the development of paste or costume jewellery. Distinguished goldsmiths continued to flourish, however, as wealthier patrons sought to ensure that what they wore still stood apart from the jewellery of the masses, not only through use of precious metals and stones but also though superior artistic and technical work. One such artist was the French goldsmith François-Désiré Froment-Meurice. A category unique to this period and quite appropriate to the philosophy of romanticism was mourning jewellery. It originated in England, where Queen Victoria was often seen wearing jet jewellery after the death of Prince Albert, and it allowed the wearer to continue wearing jewellery while expressing a state of mourning at the death of a loved one. Perhaps the grand finalé – and an appropriate transition to the following period – were the masterful creations of the Russian artist Peter Carl Fabergé, working for the Imperial Russian court, whose Fabergé eggs and jewellery pieces are still considered as the epitome of the goldsmith’s art.
18th Century / Romanticism/ Renaissance
Many whimsical fashions were introduced in the extravagant eighteenth century. Cameos that were used in connection with jewelry were the attractive trinkets along with many of the small objects such as brooches, ear-rings and scarf-pins. Some of the necklets were made of several pieces joined with the gold chains were in and bracelets were also made sometimes to match the necklet and the broach. At the end of the Century the jewelry with cut steel intermixed with large crystals was introduced by an Englishman, Matthew Boulton of Birmingham.
In the 1890s, jewellers began to explore the potential of the growing Art Nouveau style and the closely related German Jugendstil, British Arts and Crafts Movement, Catalan Modernisme, Austro-Hungarian Sezession, Italian “Liberty”, etc.
Art Nouveau jewellery encompassed many distinct features including a focus on the female form and an emphasis on colour, most commonly rendered through the use of enamelling techniques including basse-taille, champleve, cloisonné, and plique-à-jour. Motifs included orchids, irises, pansies, vines, swans, peacocks, snakes, dragonflies, mythological creatures, and the female silhouette.
René Lalique, working for the Paris shop of Samuel Bing, was recognised by contemporaries as a leading figure in this trend. The Darmstadt Artists’ Colony and Wiener Werkstätte provided perhaps the most significant input to the trend, while in Denmark Georg Jensen, though best known for his Silverware, also contributed significant pieces. In England, Liberty & Co. and the British arts & crafts movement of Charles Robert Ashbee contributed slightly more linear but still characteristic designs. The new style moved the focus of the jeweller’s art from the setting of stones to the artistic design of the piece itself. Lalique’s dragonfly design is one of the best examples of this. Enamels played a large role in technique, while sinuous organic lines are the most recognisable design feature.
The end of World War I once again changed public attitudes, and a more sober style developed.
Growing political tensions, the after-effects of the war, and a reaction against the perceived decadence of the turn of the 20th century led to simpler forms, combined with more effective manufacturing for mass production of high-quality jewellery. Covering the period of the 1920s and 1930s, the style has become popularly known as Art Deco. Walter Gropius and the German Bauhaus movement, with their philosophy of “no barriers between artists and craftsmen” led to some interesting and stylistically simplified forms. Modern materials were also introduced: plastics and aluminium were first used in jewellery, and of note are the chromed pendants of Russian-born Bauhaus master Naum Slutzky. Technical mastery became as valued as the material itself. In the West, this period saw the reinvention of granulation by the German Elizabeth Treskow, although development of the re-invention has continued into the 1990s. It is based on the basic shapes.
In Asia, the Indian subcontinent has the longest continuous legacy of jewellery making anywhere, with a history of over 5,000 years. One of the first to start jewellery making were the peoples of the Indus Valley Civilization, in what is now predominately modern-day Pakistan and part of northern and western India. Early jewellery making in China started around the same period, but it became widespread with the spread of Buddhism around 2,000 years ago.
The Chinese used silver in their jewellery more than gold. Blue kingfisher feathers were tied onto early Chinese jewellery and later, blue gems and glass were incorporated into designs. However, jade was preferred over any other stone. The Chinese revered jade because of the human-like qualities they assigned to it, such as its hardness, durability, and beauty.
In China, the most uncommon piece of jewellery is the earring, which was worn neither by men nor women. Amulets were common, often with a Chinese symbol or dragon. Dragons, Chinese symbols, and phoenixes were frequently depicted on jewellery designs.
The Chinese often placed their jewellery in their graves. Most Chinese graves found by archaeologists contain decorative jewellery.
The Indian subcontinent has a long jewellery history, which went through various changes through cultural influence and politics for more than 5,000–8,000 years. Because India had an abundant supply of precious metals and gems, it prospered financially through export and exchange with other countries. While European traditions were heavily influenced by waxing and waning empires, India enjoyed a continuous development of art forms for some 5,000 years. Other pieces that women frequently wore were thin bands of gold that would be worn on the forehead, earrings, primitive brooches, chokers, and gold rings. Although women wore jewellery the most, some men in the Indus Valley wore beads. Small beads were often crafted to be placed in men and women’s hair. The beads were about one millimetre long.
A female skeleton wears a carlinean bangle on her left hand. Kada is a special kind of bracelet and is widely popular in Indian culture. They symbolizes animals like peacock, elephant, etc.
According to Hindu belief, gold and silver are considered as sacred metals. Gold is symbolic of the warm sun, while silver suggests the cool moon. Both are the quintessential metals of Indian jewellery. Pure gold does not oxidise or corrode with time, which is why Hindu tradition associates gold with immortality. Gold imagery occurs frequently in ancient Indian literature. In the Vedic Hindu belief of cosmological creation, the source of physical and spiritual human life originated in and evolved from a golden womb or egg, a metaphor of the sun, whose light rises from the primordial waters.
Jewellery had great status with India’s royalty; it was so powerful that they established laws, limiting wearing of jewellery to royalty. Only royalty and a few others to whom they granted permission could wear gold ornaments on their feet. This would normally be considered breaking the appreciation of the sacred metals. Even though the majority of the Indian population wore jewellery, Maharajas and people related to royalty had a deeper connection with jewellery. The Maharaja’s role was so important that the Hindu philosophers identified him as central to the smooth working of the world. He was considered as a divine being, a deity in human form, whose duty was to uphold and protect dharma, the moral order of the universe.
Navaratna is a powerful jewel frequently worn by a Maharaja . It is an amulet, which comprises diamond, pearl, ruby, sapphire, emerald, topaz, cat’s eye, coral, and hyacinth . Each of these stones is associated with a celestial deity, represented the totality of the Hindu universe when all nine gems are together. The diamond is the most powerful gem among the nine stones. There were various cuts for the gemstone. Indian Kings bought gemstones privately from the sellers. Maharaja and other royal family members value gem as Hindu God. They exchanged gems with people to whom they were very close, especially the royal family members and other intimate allies. “Only the emperor himself, his intimate relations, and select members of his entourage were permitted to wear royal turban ornament. As the empire matured, differing styles of ornament acquired the generic name of sarpech, from sar or sir, meaning head, and pech, meaning fastener.”
India was the first country to mine diamonds, with some mines dating back to 296 BC. India traded the diamonds, realising their valuable qualities. Historically, diamonds have been given to retain or regain a lover’s or ruler’s lost favour, as symbols of tribute, or as an expression of fidelity in exchange for concessions and protection. Mughal emperors and Kings used the diamonds as a means of assuring their immortality by having their names and wordly titles inscribed upon them. Moreover, it has played and continues to play a pivotal role in Indian social, political, economic, and religious event, as it often has done elsewhere. In Indian history, diamonds have been used to acquire military equipment, finance wars, foment revolutions, and tempt defections. They have contributed to the abdication or the decapitation of potentates. They have been used to murder a representative of the dominating power by lacing his food with crushed diamond. Indian diamonds have been used as security to finance large loans needed to buttress politically or economically tottering regimes. Victorious military heroes have been honoured by rewards of diamonds and also have been used as ransom payment for release from imprisonment or abduction.
Today, many of the jewellery designs and traditions are used, and jewellery is commonplace in Indian ceremonies and weddings.
Among the Aztecs, only nobility wore gold jewellery, as it showed their rank, power, and wealth. Gold jewellery was most common in the Aztec Empire and was often decorated with feathers from Quetzal birds and others. In general, the more jewellery an Aztec noble wore, the higher his status or prestige. The Emperor and his High Priests, for example, would be nearly completely covered in jewellery when making public appearances. Although gold was the most common and a popular material used in Aztec jewellery, jade, turquoise, and certain feathers were considered more valuable. In addition to adornment and status, the Aztecs also used jewellery in sacrifices to appease the gods. Priests also used gem-encrusted daggers to perform animal and human sacrifices.
Another ancient American civilization with expertise in jewellery making were the Maya. At the peak of their civilization, the Maya were making jewellery from jade, gold, silver, bronze, and copper. Maya designs were similar to those of the Aztecs, with lavish headdresses and jewellery. The Maya also traded in precious gems. However, in earlier times, the Maya had little access to metal, so they made the majority of their jewellery out of bone or stone. Merchants and nobility were the only few that wore expensive jewellery in the Maya region, much the same as with the Aztecs.
Native American jewellery is the personal adornment, often in the forms of necklaces, earrings, bracelets, rings, pins, brooches, labrets, and more, made by the Indigenous peoples of the United States. Native American jewellery reflects the cultural diversity and history of its makers. Native American tribes continue to develop distinct aesthetics rooted in their personal artistic visions and cultural traditions. Artists create jewellery for adornment, ceremonies, and trade. Lois Sherr Dubin writes, “n the absence of written languages, adornment became an important element of Indian communication, conveying many levels of information.” Later, jewellery and personal adornment “…signaled resistance to assimilation. It remains a major statement of tribal and individual identity.”
Metalsmiths, beaders, carvers, and lapidaries combine a variety of metals, hardwoods, precious and semi-precious gemstones, beadwork, quillwork, teeth, bones, hide, vegetal fibres, and other materials to create jewellery. Contemporary Native American jewellery ranges from hand-quarried and processed stones and shells to computer-fabricated steel and titanium jewellery.
Jewellery making in the Pacific started later than in other areas because of recent human settlement. Early Pacific jewellery was made of bone, wood, and other natural materials, and thus has not survived. Most Pacific jewellery is worn above the waist, with headdresses, necklaces, hair pins, and arm and waist belts being the most common pieces.
Jewellery in the Pacific, with the exception of Australia, is worn to be a symbol of either fertility or power. Elaborate headdresses are worn by many Pacific cultures and some, such as the inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, wear certain headdresses once they have killed an enemy. Tribesman may wear boar bones through their noses.
Island jewellery is still very much primal because of the lack of communication with outside cultures. Some areas of Borneo and Papua New Guinea are yet to be explored by Western nations. However, the island nations that were flooded with Western missionaries have had drastic changes made to their jewellery designs. Missionaries saw any type of tribal jewellery as a sign of the wearer’s devotion to paganism. Thus many tribal designs were lost forever in the mass conversion to Christianity.
Australia is now the number one supplier of opals in the world. Opals had already been mined in Europe and South America for many years prior, but in the late 19th century, the Australian opal market became predominant. Australian opals are only mined in a few select places around the country, making it one of the most profitable stones in the Pacific.
The New Zealand Māori traditionally had a strong culture of personal adornment, most famously the hei-tiki. Hei-tikis are traditionally carved by hand from bone, nephrite, or bowenite.
Nowadays a wide range of such traditionally inspired items such as bone carved pendants based on traditional fishhooks hei matau and other greenstone jewellery are popular with young New Zealanders of all backgrounds – for whom they relate to a generalized sense of New Zealand identity. These trends have contributed towards a worldwide interest in traditional Māori culture and arts.
Other than jewellery created through Māori influence, modern jewellery in New Zealand is multicultural and varied.
Also, 3D printing as a production technique gains more and more importance. With a great variety of services offering this production method, jewellery design becomes accessible to a growing number of creatives. An important advantage of using 3d printing are the relatively low costs for prototypes, small batch series or unique and personalized designs. Shapes that are hard or impossible to create by hand can often be realized by 3D printing. Popular materials to print include Polyamide, steel and wax . Every printable material has its very own constraints that have to be considered while designing the piece of jewelry using 3d Modelling Software.
Artisan jewellery continues to grow as both a hobby and a profession. With more than 17 United States periodicals about beading alone, resources, accessibility, and a low initial cost of entry continues to expand production of hand-made adornments. Some fine examples of artisan jewellery can be seen at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
The increase in numbers of students choosing to study jewellery design and production in Australia has grown in the past 20 years, and Australia now has a thriving contemporary jewellery community. Many of these jewellers have embraced modern materials and techniques, as well as incorporating traditional workmanship.
More expansive use of metal to adorn the wearer, where the piece is larger and more elaborate than what would normally be considered jewellery, has come to be referred to by designers and fashion writers as Metal Couture.
Freemasons attach jewels to their detachable collars when in Lodge to signify a Brothers Office held with the Lodge. For example, the square represents the Master of the Lodge and the dove represents the Deacon.
Jewellery used in body modification can be simple and plain or dramatic and extreme. The use of simple silver studs, rings, and earrings predominates. Common jewellery pieces such as, earrings are a form of body modification, as they are accommodated by creating a small hole in the ear.
Padaung women in Myanmar place large golden rings around their necks. From as early as five years old, girls are introduced to their first neck ring. Over the years, more rings are added. In addition to the twenty-plus pounds of rings on her neck, a woman will also wear just as many rings on her calves. At their extent, some necks modified like this can reach long. The practice has health impacts and has in recent years declined from cultural norm to tourist curiosity. Tribes related to the Paduang, as well as other cultures throughout the world, use jewellery to stretch their earlobes or enlarge ear piercings. In the Americas, labrets have been worn since before first contact by Innu and First Nations peoples of the northwest coast. Lip plates are worn by the African Mursi and Sara people, as well as some South American peoples.
In the late twentieth century, the influence of modern primitivism led to many of these practices being incorporated into western subcultures. Many of these practices rely on a combination of body modification and decorative objects, thus keeping the distinction between these two types of decoration blurred.
In many cultures, jewellery is used as a temporary body modifier; in some cases, with hooks or other objects being placed into the recipient’s skin. Although this procedure is often carried out by tribal or semi-tribal groups, often acting under a trance during religious ceremonies, this practice has seeped into western culture. Many extreme-jewellery shops now cater to people wanting large hooks or spikes set into their skin. Most often, these hooks are used in conjunction with pulleys to hoist the recipient into the air. This practice is said to give an erotic feeling to the person and some couples have even performed their marriage ceremony whilst being suspended by hooks. the largest jewellery market is the United States with a market share of 30.8%, Japan, India, China, and the Middle East each with 8–9%, and Italy with 5%. The authors of the study predict a dramatic change in market shares by 2015, where the market share of the United States will have dropped to around 25%, and China and India will increase theirs to over 13%. The Middle East will remain more or less constant at 9%, whereas Europe’s and Japan’s marketshare will be halved and become less than 4% for Japan, and less than 3% for the biggest individual European countries, Italy and the UK.
List of jewellery types
Live insect jewelry
Bronze and brass ornamental work
List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
Borel, F. 1994. The Splendor of Ethnic Jewelry: from the Colette and Jean-Pierre Ghysels Collection. New York: H.N. Abrams .
Evans, J. 1989. A History of Jewellery 1100–1870 .
Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea 1998. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press .
Tait, H. 1986. Seven Thousand Years of Jewellery. London: British Museum Publications .